Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop unique CBRN-specific transformational materials that augment our capabilities to detect individuals and/or materials associated with the development, manufacture, or proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). DESCRIPTION: DTRA is exploring innovative technologies for CWMD by developing transformational materials to support Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) of individuals or materials associated with CBRN weapons technologies and/or products. These technologies will enhance our ability to associate individuals or material with CBRN weapons programs and support DTRA/SCC-WMD"s priority of reinforcing the COCOMS and the Department of Homeland Defense capability to rapidly and efficiently respond to WMD threats. DTRA has significant interest in materials that physically transform upon exposure to CBRN agents, isotopes, and their precursors. For example: chemical detection technologies would produce identifiable signatures when exposed to GB, GD, VX, HD or simulants such as DMMP, DIMP, DCH, CEPS and TDG; biological detection technologies would produce identifiable signatures when exposed to anthrax spores; and radiological-nuclear detection technologies would produce identifiable signatures when exposed to radiation from special nuclear materials or medical isotopes, such as Cs-137 or Co-60. Preferably, these materials will be optically covert to the unaided eye before and after transformation, or tailored into a covert key corresponding to a specific library. Ideal solutions would allow an operator to use a currently available imaging/targeting system with/without filters to observe the material after transformation. Ideal solutions would be discernible under both day and night illumination. Emphasis should be placed on signal to noise characteristics to enhance distinguishing a transformational material from its surrounding background. An ideal material would have the potential for the transformational signal to degrade after operationally relevant timeframes. Potential applications for these materials include incorporation into fibers/clothing, solvents, ink, paint, aerosol cans, appliques, construction materials (concrete, wood, steel, asphalt), and other innovative materials. PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate in a laboratory environment, transformational materials that possess a detectable signature change when exposed to CBRN agents, simulants, or isotopes, such as GB, GD, VX, HD, anthrax spores, Cs-137, and/or Co-60. PHASE II: Develop transformation materials and the initial definition of production process controls needed for reliable device performance, as well as quantification of the prototype material sensitivity, specificity, and stability when exposed to CBRN agents or simulants. Characterize and optimize transformational materials for environmental conditions. Conduct a demonstration of a standoff (200 meter) detection capability in an operationally relevant environment. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Phase III efforts include transition of this technology and implementation into a variety of uses. Properly designed transformational material would satisfy current civilian safety needs of labor workers in the chemical, biological, or nuclear industry. For example, a worker"s clothing could be treated with a material that transforms upon exposure. At the end of the worker"s shift, their clothing could be inspected under black light or Infrared IR to determine exposure levels. Civilian infrastructure components could use smart materials embedded into construction materials (concrete, wood, steel, asphalt) to enhance or induce naturally occurring transformation. An example: placing embedded transformational materials in asphalt, capturing natural earth (background) radiation or sunlight during the day and transforming with an associated optical property at night; this ultimately improves roadway visibility. Civilian law enforcement could also use transformational materials by adding/infusing to paint or home products, revealing a stand-off signature of illicit manufacturing labs which threaten homeland security. CBRN-specific transformational materials offer the ability to detect threats before incidents occur and have unique applications with respect to civil sector. This WMD ISR topic supports TTL Program technology requirements and fosters current efforts to expand innovation into C-WMD material applications.