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DoD 2013.2 SBIR Solicitation

DoD 2013.2 SBIR Solicitation

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Agency: Department of Defense
Branch: Missile Defense Agency
Program/Year: SBIR / 2013
Solicitation Number: 2013.2
Release Date: April 24, 2013
Open Date: May 24, 2013
Close Date: June 26, 2013
MDA13-001: Radar Tracking in Stressing Environments (Countermeasures)
Description: OBJECTIVE: MDA is seeking improvements in Radar Sensors systems that will enable intercepts to help defeat advanced countermeasures. Novel and innovative techniques for improving radar tracking in dense raid environments with focus on improving performance against RF advanced countermeasures is desired. The Radar should maintain track and quickly filter debris and advanced countermeasure objects in a threat complex to correctly identify and continue track on the credible object within the complex. DESCRIPTION: Key trends in the development of the threat include states that are working to defeat missile defenses, through both technical and operational countermeasures. Proliferators are increasing the number of deployed systems (and thus raid sizes), shifting from liquid- to solid-fueled systems, and deploying missile defense countermeasures. Development for the improvements in maintaining track on objects in dense/stressing environments is being sought. Factors that should be considered are track quality, discrimination performance, and engageability. These factors support mission success. To date most RF techniques have concentrated on target detection and tracking (i.e., position and velocity over time). Employing novel RF techniques could significantly enhance radar effectiveness and increase the probability of engagement success. To be most effective, however, new RF improvements should require minimal changes to the radar hardware and use RF data processing algorithms that can be implemented in existing signal processors. PHASE I: The output of the Phase I shall be a proof of concept design/study; identify designs/models and test capabilities, and conduct a feasibility assessment for the proposed model, technique, and/or methods. Phase I work should clearly validate the viability of the proposed solution. Phase I should also result in a clear concept of operations document. PHASE II: Based on the results and findings of Phase I, develop and refine the solution designs, increase the capabilities of the associated algorithms. Then demonstrate the capability of an operational or a slightly modified SPY-1 radar to support the solution during target detection and tracking, and measure any increase in overall radar effectiveness. The Phase II objective will be to validate a new technology solution that MDA users and prime contractors can transition in phase III. Validate the feasibility of the Phase I concept by development and demonstrations that will be tested to ensure performance objectives are met. Validation would include, but not be limited to, system simulations, operation in test-beds, or operation in a demonstration subsystem. The goal of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate technology solution viability. PHASE III: In this phase, the contractor will apply the innovations demonstrated in the first two phases to one or more MDA systems, subsystems, or components. The objective of Phase III is to demonstrate the scalability of the developed technology, transition the component technology to the MDA system integrator or payload contractor, mature it for operational insertion, and demonstrate the technology in an operational level environment. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies and models developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in such diverse fields as air traffic control, weather systems, and other tracking applications. REFERENCES: 1) Mahafza, B.,"Radar Systems Analysis Using MATLAB,"Chapman, 2nd Edition, 2005 2) Davis Knox Barton,"Radar System Analysis and Modeling, Vol 1, Artech House, 2005
MDA13-002: Impact Flash Mitigation in Raid Environments
Description: OBJECTIVE: This research seeks algorithms and hardware improvements for Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) used in future BMDS interceptors. Interceptor missiles need an improved capability to detect, track, and discriminate threat objects in an environment that includes adverse effects from celestial objects, impact flashes from other interceptors, and stray light effects. The objective of this research is to investigate the application of advanced weapon scheduling algorithms to mitigate missile performance degradation in challenging raid environments. DESCRIPTION: Future BMD engagement scenarios project increased numbers of threat ballistic missiles, dense raids, and a need for interceptor missiles to operate in the presence of potentially adverse environmental conditions, which may exist due to irradiance from the sun or other celestial objects. A need exists for FPAs to operate at small off-boresight angles to celestial objects, and also in the presence of intense flashes of infrared energy resulting from the impact of other interceptors on threat missiles. A raid environment will present challenges including the presence of closely-spaced ballistic missile objects, impact flashes and other intercepting missiles within the FPA (Focal Plane Array) of the intercepting missile. In addition, single-shot performance factors which include celestial object avoidance must also be accounted for. Optimal weapon scheduling algorithms, which account for these factors, can be considered in mitigating interference and maintaining performance in raid environments. The proposed approach should serve as a compliment to the current SM-3 missile hardware, as it eliminates or reduces interference in the prelaunch phase. PHASE I: Develop a proof of concept design for optimal raid scheduling algorithms to mitigate interference and maintain performance in a raid environment; identify designs and test capabilities, and conduct feasibility assessment for the proposed algorithms. Phase I work should clearly validate the viability of the proposed solution. Phase I should also result in a clear concept of operations document. PHASE II: Based on the results and findings of Phase I, utilize Aegis BMD assets as an intial testbed for continued research and refinement of algorithms. This would also include application to diverse weapons systems and varying threat scenarios. The Phase II objective will be to validate a new technology solution that MDA users and prime contractors can transition in phase III. Validate the feasibility of the Phase I concept by development and demonstrations that will be tested to ensure performance objectives are met. Validation would include, but not be limited to, system simulations, operation in test-beds, or operation in a demonstration subsystem. The goal of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate technology solution viability. PHASE III: In this phase, the contractor will apply the innovations demonstrated in the first two phases to one or more MDA systems, subsystems, or components. The objective of Phase III is to demonstrate the scalability of the developed technology, transition the component technology to the MDA system integrator or payload contractor, mature it for operational insertion, and demonstrate the technology in an operational level environment. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies and models developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in such diverse fields such as systems dealing with densely spaced threats. REFERENCES: 1) John M. Dolan, Mahesh Saptharishi, C. S. Oliver, Christopher P. Diehl, Alvaro Soto, and Pradeep K. Khosla,"Network of Collaborating Mobile and Stationary Sensors", Proceedings of SPIE 4232, 331 (2001). 2) Felicity Dormon, Valerie Leung, Dave Nicholson, Ellie Siva, and Mark Williams,"Information-Based Decision Making Over a Data Fusion Network", Proc. SPIE 5809, 100 (2005).
MDA13-003: Improved Solid Divert and Attitude Control System (DACS) Performance
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate improvements in SDACS performance in areas such as high-temperature, lightweight materials; propellants; thrust control techniques; and innovative SDACS architectures. DESCRIPTION: Ballistic Missile Defense kinetic warheads (KWs) utilize a DACS to maneuver the KW to intercept ballistic missile threats. A solid propellant is used to provide safe storage aboard Navy vessels. Current solid propellant DACS have performance limitations relative to liquid propellant DACS with respect to operating time, divert distance and energy management (on/off capability) and mass. These limitations result in reduced missile performance. Mission requirements for fast (high burnout velocity) interceptors require a light weight KW. To meet these evolving requirements, DACS technology will require improvements in high-temperature, lightweight materials; innovative propellants; thrust control techniques; and performance characterization. Specific areas of interest include 1. High temperature, light weight materials: Development/demonstration of light weight structural insulator materials that can perform as rigid insulation to reduce component weight and volume, can replace multi layered components by performing as pressure vessels. These materials should be able to maintain dimensional stability under high thermal loads (>3000F) and thermal shock (70F-3000F within 500 ms) conditions under varying operating pressures (15psi -1500 psi). 2. Propellants: Demonstrate innovative propellants that demonstrate enhanced controllability. 3. Thrust control techniques: develop innovative technologies for thrust control, including on/off valve technology, light weight actuators, and electronic control techniques. 4. Innovative SDACS architectures: Devise innovate technologies for SDACS architectures that improves performance (energy management) while reducing overall SDACS mass to achieve performance similar to liquid DACS. PHASE I: Develop a proof-of-concept solution; identify candidate materials, propellants, thrust control techniques or innovative SDACS architectures. Complete preliminary evaluation of the technology showing the assessment of improvement through performance improvement, weight reduction or operation time increase. At completion of this program the design and assessment will be documented for Phase II. PHASE II: Expand on Phase I results by producing the components, demonstrating the technology or concept. These activities will provide data to support the studies completed in the phase I program (component technology,or SDACS architecture) to substantiate the improvements. This will allow a more thorough assessment of the technology for application to the SM-3 missile. PHASE III: The developed process/product should have direct insertion potential into the SM-3 missile. Conduct engineering and manufacturing development, test, evaluation, qualification. Demonstration would include, but not limited to, demonstration in a real system or operation in a system level test-bed with insertion planning for a missile defense interceptor. COMMERCIALIZATION: The technologies developed under this SBIR topic should have applicability to defense industry as well as other potential applications such as commercial space flight and commercial industries which employ the use of energetic chemicals. REFERENCES: 1) George P. Sutton,"Rocket propulsion Elements; Introduction to Engineering of Rockets"7th edition, John Willey & Sons, 2001. 2) Mik HDBK 17: Department of Defense Handbook: Composite Materials Handbook. January 23, 1997.
MDA13-004: Radar Resource Management (Raid Capability)
Description: OBJECTIVE: This Topic seeks research and development of innovative algorithms toward reducing radar resource utilization at the unit level through overall force level coordination of tracking assignments. The objective is to decrease overall radar resource management while increasing probability that all threats in a raid are tracked. DESCRIPTION: Radar resources can limit mission operations of a ship when utilization is high. Leveraging the radar resources of multiple ships enables those ships to increase mission operations. In addition, implementing force level radar resource management system can increase cue quality and allow increased performance when cueing on spaced based asset data. Development of an architecture is needed to defeat projected raids in the 2020 time frame. Develop performance requirements for large raids using external sensors, multiple assets, and weapons types against multiple threat types. Also define enhancements to allow dynamic radar resource management, selection of engagement mode, and missile types. The solution should take into account the operational constraints of each sensor type, including various sensors and interceptors. Further, these algorithms must be of use within computer models for planning and effectiveness determination of hybrid Aegis BMD systems. These algorithms must be able to recommend sensor assets that minimize the number of required sensors for a given coverage, and maximize the effectiveness of each sensor given its performance and resource constraints. In addition, these algorithms must be capable of implementation in existing BMD planning tools with a minimum of hardware, software and doctrinal changes. Primary measures of effectiveness will be minimizing required sensor resources in a threat raid environment, minimizing the probability of leakage, minimizing expended interceptors and maximizing probability of raid annihilation. PHASE I: Develop a proof of concept design; identify designs and test capabilities, and conduct feasibility assessment for the proposed algorithms. Phase I work should clearly validate the viability of the proposed solution. Phase I should also result in a clear concept of operations document. PHASE II: Based on the results and findings of Phase I, develop the planning models that can provide calculated and graphical output of optimal sites for BMD assets. Further refine the algorithms, increase the capabilities of the associated models, and exercise these models using real world data, including actual BMD asset characteristics. The Phase II objective will be to validate a new technology solution that MDA users and prime contractors can transition in phase III. Validate the feasibility of the Phase I concept by development and demonstrations that will be tested to ensure performance objectives are met. Validation would include, but not be limited to, system simulations, operation in test-beds, or operation in a demonstration subsystem. The goal of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate technology solution viability. PHASE III: In this phase, the contractor will apply the innovations demonstrated in the first two phases to one or more MDA systems, subsystems, or components. The objective of Phase III is to demonstrate the scalability of the developed technology, transition the component technology to the MDA system integrator or payload contractor, mature it for operational insertion, and demonstrate the technology in an operational level environment. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies and models developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in such diverse fields as air traffic control, weather systems, and other tracking applications. REFERENCES: 1) Lamber, & Sinno,"Bioinspired Resource Management for Multi-Sensor target Tracking Systems,"MIT Lincoln Laboratory Project Report MD-26, June 20, 2011 2) John M. Dolan, Mahesh Saptharishi, C. S. Oliver, Christopher P. Diehl, Alvaro Soto, and Pradeep K. Khosla,"Network of Collaborating Mobile and Stationary Sensors", Proceedings of SPIE 4232, 331 (2001). 3) Felicity Dormon, Valerie Leung, Dave Nicholson, Ellie Siva, and Mark Williams,"Information-Based Decision Making Over a Data Fusion Network", Proc. SPIE 5809, 100 (2005).
MDA13-005: Manufacturing efficiencies in Throttleable Divert and Attitude Control Systems (TDACS)
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate improvements in manufacturing processes, yield and efficiencies of components and subsystems critical to controllable solid DACS applications. DESCRIPTION: Highest quality components are necessary to ensure that the TDACS can reliably perform its intended operation. MDA is interested in innovative product improvements and innovative application of mature product technologies, within a path toward integration into controllable solid DACS. This can range from improvements in fabrication/manufacturing of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components (example C-SiC), advancements in manufacturing materials/processes for circuit card assemblies, innovative non-destructive evaluation techniques for high temperature materials and improvements in functionality over existing technologies (thermal batteries, structural insulators). This may involve basic industrial research and development, characterization testing of advanced materials, development of improved material manufacturing and component assembly processes, etc., that lead to a specific product application. The goal is to enhance the producibility/manufacturability of controllable solid DACS for missile defense to reduce unit cost, or improved product reliability and performance. Areas of interest include: 1. Manufacturing improvements/innovative ceramic matrix composite structural components. These include light weight components that can provide dimensional stability (little change in manufactured shape) through a range of temperatures (room temperature through ~4000 F) for operational durations of between 20 and 300 seconds). This should include evaluation of low thermally conductive materials to achieve small compact components. 2. Advanced manufacturing materials and processes for circuit card assemblies to increase process yield, reduce manufacturing time, and improve solder toughness. 3. Innovative non-destructive techniques (NDT) for high temperature materials. Rapid scanning and evaluation of high temperature CMC materials is key to understanding the amount of flaws or defects in a completed part. NDT with the ability to assess and identify defects/flaws/delaminations in dense composite components is needed to reduce inspection time. 4. Improvements over existing technologies (such as thermal batteries and structural insulators). Thermal battery improvements including innovations in higher energy/power density thermal batteries, i.e. LiFeS2, LiCoS2. Structural insulator improvements including reduced mass, high thermal shock toughness and dimensional stability for a range of thermal environments (room temperature to ~4000 F). PHASE I: Develop a proof-of-concept solution; identify candidate materials, NDE techniques, power systems and manufacturing processes. Complete preliminary evaluation of the process, technique or manufacturing technology showing the assessment of improvement through improved manufacturing lead times, cost, reliability or yield improvement. At completion of this program the design and assessment will be documented for Phase II. PHASE II: Expand on Phase I results by producing components, demonstrating manufacturing processes, inspection process/equipment. These activities will provide data to support the studies completed in the Phase I program (lead time reduction, performance improvements, cost reduction) to substantiate the improvements. This will allow a more thorough assessment of the technology for application within the controllable solid DACS. PHASE III: The developed process/product should have direct insertion potential into controllable solid DACS. Conduct engineering and manufacturing development, test, evaluation, qualification. Demonstration would include, but not be limited to, demonstration in a real system or operation in a system level test-bed with insertion planning for a missile defense interceptor. COMMERCIALIZATION: The technologies developed under this SBIR topic should have applicability to defense industry as well as other potential applications such as commercial space flight and commercial industries which employ the use of energetic chemicals. REFERENCES: 1) George P. Sutton,"Rocket Propulsion Elements; Introduction to Engineering of Rockets,"7th edition, John Willey & Sons, 2001.
MDA13-006: SM-3 Systems Materials and Design Improvements
Description: OBJECTIVE: This research seeks improvements in the materials and/or design for upper stage elements of the Standard Missile-3 (SM-3). Improvements include innovative materials & products that improve capability, reliability, and producibility in SM-3 upper stage systems, including application of or modification of existing products applied in a creative way to specific SM-3 systems, sub systems, or component requirements. DESCRIPTION: Many missile defense products are fabricated in an R & D/laboratory environment and are subject to expensive, time-consuming custom integration into systems. Product technology is transitioned from laboratory to factory without complete understanding of producibility constraints on product designs. As a result, innovative product improvements and innovative product applications are needed that can be integrated into SM-3 systems. This can range from improvements in fabrication of advanced materials to innovative products that improve the capability of currently fielded systems, developing systems and associated subsystems. Prime missile items such as nosecones, structures, rocket motors and propellants should be considered. This may involve basic industrial research and development, characterization testing of advanced materials, development of improved material manufacturing and component assembly processes, etc., that lead to a specific SM-3 missile product application. The goal is to enhance the producibility and performance of SM-3 missile defense materials and structure products, reduce cost, and improve product reliability and performance. Technical areas of interest include, but are not limited to: 1) Polymer matrix and metal matrix graphite and ceramic composites for structures and thermal management systems capitalizing on more recent rapid prototyping composite manufacturing techniques to reduce cost, weight, and lead time. 2) Non-exotic propellant technologies for ease of production and ease of handling and storage. 3) Interceptor structures: Nosecone assemblies, missile compression clips and rings, intra-stage heat sinks, electronic boards housings and assemblies, KW structural assemblies, and seeker mirrors and support structures, SM-3 DACS & ACS subsystems, aerodynamic fins. 4) RF antenna structures: Use of lightweight composite materials and advance thermal management approaches for both SM-3 and SM-6 sea based terminal defense applications. 5) Missile canisters: Use of more recent manufacturing improvements in commercial industry to reduce cost and lead-time on large structures such as missile canisters. Design focus areas include weight reduction or parts count reduction for next generation shipping/launch canisters. 6) Integrated thermal/structural aero-shells/shrouds: Replace the current airframe manufacturing process and designing a one-step infusion process for stitched glass knitted bundle pre-forms for application to low cost, lightweight, and high performance aero-shells and shrouds. PHASE I: Develop conceptual framework for composite material and structure product design or design modification, which would be used for SM-3 integration into a system or subsystem to increase performance, lower cost, or increase reliability. Develop a proof of concept design; identify designs and test capabilities, and conduct feasibility assessment for the proposed solution. Phase I work should clearly validate the viability of the proposed solution. Phase I should also result in a clear concept of operations document. PHASE II: Based on the results and findings of Phase I, demonstrate and validate the feasibility of a new materials and/or structures technology by demonstrating its use in the testing and integration of prototype items for MDA element systems, subsystems, or components. Validation should include, but not be limited to, system simulations, operation in test-beds, or operation in a demonstration sub-system. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems or components is highly desirable. Identify any commercial benefit or application opportunities of the innovation. PHASE III: In this phase, the contractor will apply the innovations demonstrated in the first two phases to an MDA system, subsystems, or components. The objective of Phase III is to transition the component technology to the MDA system integrator or payload contractor, mature it for operational insertion, and demonstrate the technology in an operational level environment. Demonstration would include, but not be limited to, demonstration in a real system or operation in a system level test-bed. This demonstration should show near term application to one or more SM-3 element systems, subsystems, or components. COMMERCIALIZATION: Most innovations in manufacturing processes take place at the supplier/subcontractor level. The proposals should show how the innovation can benefit commercial business or show that the innovation has benefits to both commercial and defense manufacturing methods. The projected benefits of the innovation to commercial applications should be clear, whether they reduce cost, or improve producibility or performance of products that utilize innovative process technology. REFERENCES: 1) George P. Sutton,"Rocket propulsion Elements; Introduction to Engineering of Rockets,"7th edition, John Willey & Sons, 2001.
MDA13-007: New and Innovative Overhead Persistent InfraRed (OPIR) Sensor Tasking Capabilities
Description: OBJECTIVE: Design innovative new tasking paradigms for OPIR sensor tasking, with consideration for timing constraints, as well as resolution and geometric differences between sensors. DESCRIPTION: Address and analyze the issues surrounding and including such factors as the unique sensor response times, unique positioning and the differences between various OPIR platforms and configurations of the OPIR assets (i.e. constellations). Provide results of study on the quality variances between OPIR sensors with respect to these differences. The MDA Directorate of Command and Control, Battle Management and Communication (MDA/BC) desires analysis and review of the specific issues, difficulties and opportunities MDA will encounter in the utilization of OPIR tasking opportunities. These assets vary in number, location, and capability overtime. These factors must be considered by defenders as they plan for engagements prior to tasking sensors. The researcher may assume that different configurations of these satellites are available or possible under different scenarios: for instance, a configuration may consist of two HEOs, one GEO and an adequate number of LEOs, a constellation, to provide continuous coverage, each being eligible for tasking through the above mentioned broker to the sensor resource manager. Some sensors may be stationary in orbit and viewing capability, and some may be dynamic, but any motions will be known, as will the capabilities and status of the sensors onboard the assets. The goal is not to fuse the data nor to provide track data or dynamic analysis of any kind, but rather to identify opportunities available in the process of bringing these sensors to bear on targets and other factors within the Ballistic Missile Defense battle sequence. PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate a tasking algorithm that accommodates multiple OPIR sensors of varying types with varying resolution and capabilities. Maintain awareness of timing constraints of battle management needs and sensor locations with respect to the target complex, as well as requirements for track quality versus target characterization quality measurements that will be needed. PHASE II: Refine and update concept(s) based on Phase I results, and demonstrate the impacts of raid scenarios on stressing tasking environments. Demonstrate how the tasking scheme can accommodate multiple launches and maintain track while obtaining adequate measurements for a high fidelity simulation environment. If desired by the developer, the government may choose to provide a government testbed at no cost if the developer wishes to utilize the facility for high fidelity testing. PHASE III: Demonstrate the new technologies via operation as part of a complete system or operation in a system-level test bed to allow for testing and evaluation in realistic scenarios. Market technologies developed under this solicitation to relevant missile defense elements directly, or transition them through vendors. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies and optimization components developed in Phase II for potential commercial and military uses in many areas such as automated processing, robotics, medical industry, and manufacturing processes. REFERENCES: 1. M. Perillo, W. Heinzelman,"Sensor Management". Wireless Sensor Networks, pp 351-372. Springer, 2004 2. A.O. Hero, D. Cochran,"Sensor Management: Past, Present and Future". IEEE Sensors Journal, January 2012. 3. Hendrickson, R.M.,"Ballistic Missile Defense Update", Presentation at the 2012 Space and Missile Defense Conference, 14 August 2012. 4. Greenhagen, M. and D. Dusza,"Exploitation and Application of Overhead Persistent Infrared (OPIR) Sensors to Support Global Strike Missions", Presentation at the 2012 Space and Missile Defense Conference, 13 August 2012. 5. Department of the Air Force, Headquarters Space and Missile System Center (AFSPC), Los Angeles Air Force Base, CA,"Request for Information Regarding Overhead Persistent Infrared (OPIR) Ground Architecture Improvements to support the JOINT OPIR Ground Architecture (JOG) Study being conducted from August 2009 to January 2010", 9 September 2009. 6. Helms, S.J.,"Statement Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Senate Armed Services Committee on Space Posture", 11 May 2011.
MDA13-008: Multi-Sensor Environmental Characterization
Description: OBJECTIVE: To develop new methods for multi-sensor scene characterization to aid sensor resource management and target characterization. DESCRIPTION: Individual sensors, EO/IR or Radar, can generally determine when a particular portion of the scene is degraded, yielding inadequate information for tracking, or corrupted measurements for target characterization. However, for battle management, this information needs to be transmitted to C2BMC in an effective and efficient manner. C2BMC needs to be able to determine from the information gathered from, possibly, widely located sensors, where sensor coverage is degraded, and how, so alternate resources can be allocated to compensate. Information about single sensor scene assessment should be transmitted to C2BMC in inertial reference frame coordinates, particularly for sensors with dynamic Fields of View (FoV). This will assist C2BMC in reconstructing the battlespace, which for ballistic missile defense can extend across continents. Taking the piecemeal information from sensors of varying types and reconstructing the scene in terms of degraded measurement conditions can be challenging. The sea based, or land based radars can be impacted by natural environments as well as engagement conditions. They may have inadequate signal to noise ratio due to high noise background, and degraded conditions could exist for all, or only some range cells, and all or only certain azimuthal directions in the FoV. The radar may be able to compensate wholly or partially to maintain track or salvage measurements, and this needs to be reported. For an EO/IR overhead sensor, there may be too much energy on the focal plane, again decreasing SNR and making detection, persistent tracking or accurate measurements challenging. In this case, the range is uncertain, but the degraded measurements are well characterized with respect to angle from the pointing vector of the focal plane. The type of environmental characterization information acquired from different types of sensors can be fundamentally different, but they tell a story of"we were unable to track and/or characterize the target without excess ambiguity". This function transfers that responsibility to C2BMC which then needs to find a sensor which can view the target, or target complex, from a less impacted viewing angle, or in a wavelength that is less susceptible to the degrading agent. For example, if a radar reports numerous detections in one region, this geometric information can be conveyed to C2BMC which may be able to task an overhead sensor which might view a more dispersed scene. Innovations that achieve optimal characterization of the battlespace with minimal input of information are sought. The sensor composition should include at least two X-Band radars and an LEO constellation of EO/IR sensors. Additional S-Band radars would be useful. PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate, through proof-of-principle tests, sensor message constructs describing the degraded environment from various types of sensors, and methods for C2BMC to use these messages to reconstruct the battlespace with respect to the target complexes and degraded sensing environments. Demonstrate how this reconstruction could be utilized to task sensors to reduce track or target characterization ambiguity. PHASE II: Refine and update concept(s) based on Phase I results and demonstrate the technology in a realistic environment using agency provided engagements. Demonstrate the technology"s ability in a stressed environment; with few sensors, and many targets with countermeasures. PHASE III: Demonstrate the new technologies via operation as part of a complete system or operation in a system-level test bed to allow for testing and evaluation in realistic scenarios. Market technologies developed under this solicitation to relevant missile defense elements directly, or transition them through vendors. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies and optimization components developed in Phase II for potential commercial and military uses in many areas such as supply chain distribution logistics, automated processing, robotics, and manufacturing processes. REFERENCES: 1. http://www.epa.gov/esd/cmb/GeophysicsWebsite/pages/reference/methods/Sur... 2. Cowley, D.C. & Shafai, B. (June 1993). Registration in Multi-Sensor Data Fusion and Tracking, Proceedings of the American Control Conference. 3. Hall, D. & Llinas, J. (January 1997). An Introduction to Multisensor Data Fusion, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 85(1), 6-23. 4. Sanders, W.M.,"Multi-sensor Surveillance with In-situ Environmental Characterization", OCEANS'99 MTS/IEEE, Riding the Crest into the 21st Century, pp. 1149-1153, Vol. 3 (1999). 5. Savage, C.O., H. Chen, J.G. Riddle, and H.A. Schmitt,"Fuzzy classification algorithm as applied to signal discrimination for navy theater-wide missile defense", Proc. SPIE 4120, Applications and Science of Neural Networks, Fuzzy Systems, and Evolutionary Computation III, 134 (October 13, 2000). 6. Weiner, S.D. and S.M. Rocklin,"Discrimination Performance Requirements for Ballistic Missile Defense", The Lincoln Laboratory Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1 (1994). 7. Maurer, D.E., R.W. Schirmer, M.K. Kalandros, and J.S.J. Peri,"Sensor Fusion Architectures for Ballistic Missile Defense", Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, Vol. 27, No. 1 (2006). 8. Resch, C., F.J. Pineda, and I. Wang,"Automatic Recognition and Assignment of Missile Pieces in Clutter", International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Vol. 5 (1999). 9. Michael J. Jones, Pawan Sinha, Thomas Vetter and Tomaso Poggio, (1997), Top-down learning of low-level vision tasks, Current Biology, Vol 7 No 12. 10. Kenneth R. Castleman, (1995), Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall; 2nd edition (September 2, 1995). 11. J. R. Parker, (2010), Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision, Wiley; 2 edition (December 21, 2010). 12. Liggins, M.E., et. Al., Editors. (2009). Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion: Theory and Practice (2nd edition), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 13. Skolnik, Merrill (2008). Radar Handbook, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional. 14. Palmer, J. M., and Grant, B.G., (2010), The Art of Radiometry, SPIE.
MDA13-009: Physical Uncloneable Function (PUF) Encryption Key
Description: OBJECTIVE: Physical Uncloneable Functions (PUFs) have been a topic of research interest in recent years for usage in system component or hardware authentication applications. The goal for this topic is to research means to significantly increase the statistical uniqueness and robustness of PUF such that they can be utilized as an encryption key for cryptographic processes. DESCRIPTION: In many system applications, information is held in an encrypted format at rest, or during transition from one system to another. This makes the protection of any encryption key (typically stored in electronic memory) critical in system software architectures. With a PUF key robust enough for cryptographic applications, the need for a dedicated power-source (e.g., a battery) to keep the key memory alive is eliminated. Also, data remanence issues are eliminated, and additional physical security measures to protect the memory device are minimized. Deliverables would include proof of concept simulations and prototypes of individual elements of the proposed technology. PHASE I: Research and develop a prototype PUF sensor for tamper detection and reverse engineering detection. Simple prototypes should be used to demonstrate the feasibility and generation of the PUF; the prototypes may be complemented by simulations or models, as appropriate. Estimate the uniqueness and robustness (i.e., the ability of the PUF to reliably and repeatedly generate unique encryption keys of a minimum 256 bits in length) of the proposed technology and estimate its sensitivity to detecting a tamper event. Estimate the range of probing events that the sensor will detect. Provide a Phase I final report to the government point of contact. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is highly desirable. PHASE II: Based on the Phase I research; develop, demonstrate and validate a prototype PUF. Identify an optimal number of unique and repeatable bits that will constitute the PUF encryption key. An independent lab is to test and evaluate the uniqueness and robustness of the resultant PUF technology. A copy of the test report is to be provided to the government point of contact. An analysis shall be conducted to evaluate the ability of the technology/technique to protect against tampering in a real-world situation. The contractor shall also identify any anticipated commercial benefit or application opportunities of the innovation. Deliver to the government point of contact, two evaluation boards utilizing the PUF encryption key, and all required software tools for testing and evaluation. Provide an on-site two day PUF development and utilization seminar at an MDA facility. Provide a Phase II final report to the government point of contact. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is highly desirable. PHASE III: Integrate the PUF AT protection technology into a critical system application, for a BMDS system level test-bed. This phase will demonstrate the application to one or more MDA element systems, subsystems, or components - as well as the product"s utility against industrial espionage. An analysis shall be conducted to evaluate the ability of the technology/technique to protect against tampering in a real-world situation. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is required. COMMERCIALIZATION: The proposals should show how the innovation can benefit commercial business or should show that the innovation has benefits to both commercial and defense applications. The projected benefits of the innovation to commercial applications should be clear, whether they improve security, reduce cost, or improve the producibility or performance of products that utilize the innovative technology. REFERENCES: 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physically_Unclonable_Function 2. http://www.sandeepkumar.org/my/papers/2007_FPL_PUFnPKC.pdf 3. http://www.csl.cornell.edu/~suh/papers/dac07.pdf 4. Willis, L., Newcomb, P., Eds. Reverse Engineering, Kluwer Academic Publications, 1996. 5. Ingol, K.A., Reverse Engineering, McGraw-Hill Professional, 1994. 6. Furber, S., ARM System-On-Chip Architecture, Addison-Wesley, 2000. 7. Huang, A. Hacking the Xbox: An Introduction to Reverse Engineering, No Starch, 2003.
MDA13-010: Security Improvements for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative security measures to improve the security of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) being utilized in electronic systems. The innovation must be able to be implemented as an Intellectual Property (IP) core, or as IP Blocks; and provide security against a wide variety of reverse engineering methodologies. DESCRIPTION: The usage of FPGAs is rapidly increasing in the DoD due to their flexibility in accommodating future firmware improvements and operational upgrades. Yet, from a security standpoint, challenges exist that limit FPGA. Particular areas of interest for improving FPGA security include the secure loading of a bitstream (i.e., the dataset that creates the functional capability within the FPGA device), partial reconfiguration, and storage and utilization of encryption keys. Minimal use of logic resources with maximum performance is required. Deliverables would include the IP that instantiates the additional security feature(s) on the FPGA, a demonstration of the efficacy of the IP, and metrics to identify temporal and spatial impacts of the IP on the FPGA. PHASE I: Research and develop a prototype FPGA security capability for protection of hardware and software. Simple prototypes should be used to demonstrate the feasibility and capability of the FPGA security capability; the prototypes may be complemented by simulations or models, as appropriate. Provide a detailed estimate of the robustness (i.e., the ability of the FPGA security capability to reliably protect against reverse engineering attacks) of the proposed technology. Estimate the amount of FPGA resources (e.g., number of slices, look-up tables, or such) that will be required by the FPGA security capability, as well as the timing delay (if any) that is anticipated to occur for FPGA bitstream loading and initialization as a result of using the technology. Provide a Phase I final report to the government point of contact. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is highly desirable. PHASE II: Based on the Phase I research; develop, demonstrate and validate a fully capable FPGA security capability. Provide measurements of FPGA resources utilized and timing delays that result from using the security capability. An analysis shall be conducted to evaluate the ability of the technology/technique to protect FPGA integrity in a real-world situation. An independent lab is to test and evaluate the security of the resultant FPGA security technology. A copy of the test reports are to be provided to the government point of contact. These test and analysis efforts are potential opportunities for future commercialization. The contractor shall also identify any anticipated commercial benefit or application opportunities of the innovation. Deliver to the government point of contact, two evaluation boards utilizing the FPGA security capability, and all required software tools for testing and evaluation. Provide an on-site two day FPGA security capability utilization seminar at an MDA facility. Provide a Phase II final report to the government point of contact. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is highly desirable. PHASE III: Integrate the FPGA security capability into a critical system application, for a BMDS system level test-bed. This phase will demonstrate the application to one or more MDA element systems, subsystems, or components, as well as the product"s utility against industrial espionage. An analysis shall be conducted to evaluate the ability of the technology/technique to protect FPGA integrity in a real-world situation. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is highly desirable. COMMERCIALIZATION: The proposals should show how the innovation can benefit commercial business or should show that the innovation has benefits to both commercial and defense applications. The projected benefits of the innovation to commercial applications should be clear, whether they improve security, reduce cost, or improve the producibility or performance of products that utilize the innovative technology. REFERENCES: 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field-programmable_gate_array 2. http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~kastner/papers/d+t08-managing_fpga_security.pdf 3. http://eprint.iacr.org/2008/081.pdf 4. Willis, L., Newcomb, P., Eds. Reverse Engineering, Kluwer Academic Publications, 1996. 5. Ingol, K.A., Reverse Engineering, McGraw-Hill Professional, 1994. 6. Furber, S., ARM System-On-Chip Architecture, Addison-Wesley, 2000. 7. Huang, A., Hacking the Xbox: An Introduction to Reverse Engineering, No Starch, 2003.
MDA13-011: Long-Term Electronics Power Source
Description: OBJECTIVE: This topic builds upon a previous SBIR topic, MDA08-041, which called for a low power battery with 150 nanoamp capacity. The objective of this topic is to develop an improved low power battery capable of providing 3.3 volts DC at 50 microamps average current for 20 years. The battery shall also have a 20 year shelf life. Physical size of the battery shall not exceed 2.0 inches x 2.0 inches x 0.5 inches, and the weight shall be less than 4.0 ounces. DESCRIPTION: Batteries are problematic in military systems. Current batteries do not have more than 5 to 10 years of shelf life at -40 degrees C or + 85 degrees C. A long-life battery is needed to support environmental sensors for equipments/weapons which may experience long-term storage environments. This will reduce system maintenance costs. The battery should be environmentally friendly, with minimal disposal issues and the ability to be certified flight-worthy. Deliverables would include proof of concept simulations and prototypes of individual elements of the proposed technology. The proposed battery could also have many commercial applications for consumer electronics. PHASE I: Research and develop a prototype long-life battery capability to enable active environmental sensing capabilities during long-term (i.e., approximately 20 years), unpowered storage periods at temperatures varying between -40 degrees C to +85 degrees C. Simple prototypes may be used to demonstrate the feasibility and capability of the battery's capability; the prototypes may be complemented by simulations or models, as appropriate. Provide a detailed estimate of the proposed battery's power output capability over the course of a 20-year lifetime, at nominal and extreme temperatures. Estimate the volume and cost of additional research and production development required (beyond Phase I) to result in a production-ready battery. Provide a Phase I final report to the government point of contact. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is highly desirable. PHASE II: Based on the Phase I research; develop, demonstrate and validate a fully capable long-life battery. Provide long-term measurements of the battery's power capacity. Environmental testing shall be conducted to assess the ability of the proposed battery technology to withstand temperature extremes, as well as vibration and shock environments. An independent lab is to test and evaluate the power capacity and environmental ruggedness of the resultant battery technology. A copy of the test reports are to be provided to the government point of contact. The contractor shall also identify any anticipated commercial benefit or application opportunities of the innovation. Deliver to the government point of contact, two evaluation boards utilizing the long-life battery capability, and all required software tools for testing and evaluation. Provide a Phase II final report to the government point of contact. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is highly desirable. PHASE III: Integrate the long-life battery capability into a critical system application, for a BMDS system level test-bed. This phase will demonstrate the application to one or more MDA element systems, subsystems, or components. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems, or components is required. COMMERCIALIZATION: The proposals should show how the innovation can benefit commercial business or should show that the innovation has benefits to both commercial and defense applications. The projected benefits of the innovation to commercial applications should be clear, whether they improve security, reduce cost, or improve the producibility or performance of products that utilize the innovative technology. REFERENCES: 1. Handbook of Batteries, D. Linden and T.B. Reddy (3rd ed). McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (2001). 2. Product Datasheet for 1.5V"Cylindrical Lithium"Lithium/Iron Disulfide (Li/FeS2) No. EBC - 4214C, Energizer Holdings, Inc., Cleveland, OH (2012). 3. S.A. Fateev. Life tests of Lithium/Fluorocarbon cells. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry V36, N7, P778-783 (2000).
MDA13-012: Innovative Solutions for Improving Discrete Debris Signature Models
Description: OBJECTIVE: The goal of this effort is to develop a fast-running and robust methodology for estimating Radar Cross Section (RCS) and Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) signatures of debris predictions from first-principle physics codes. Signature predictions are desired for hydro-structural codes used to predict Post-Intercept Debris (PID) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes used to predict solid rocket motor debris. DESCRIPTION: As the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) continues implementation of the Phased Adaptive Approach (PAA), robust operation of Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) sensors within dense debris environments will become more critical to successful execution of the integrated BMDS and to mitigate debris effects preventing successful mission accomplishment (negate enemy missiles). As adversary motor technologies mature, the preponderance of solid rocket motors and their associated debris will become more commonplace. Furthermore, overlapping battlespace responsibilities for some BMDS elements will lead to remote sensor observations of intercepts executed by other elements (i.e. non-organic PID). BMDS sensors must be capable of performing key radar functions such as search, track, discrimination and Hit/Kill Assessment (HA/KA) in the cluttered environment created by this debris. Testing the BMDS sensors with high-fidelity models in the simulation architectures is critical for assessing these capabilities. Significant advances have been made in recent years in first-principle physics-based modeling and simulation allowing for higher-fidelity predictions. Additionally, upgrades to computational facilities allow these codes to execute in a timely manner. These advances have made these tools practicable for missile defense applications. Specifically, these tools now support debris scene generation for both solid rocket motor debris and post-intercept debris. These first-principle codes provide detailed geometry, physical state and material information for the resulting debris that can be leveraged to generate precise BMDS sensor signatures. In the current simulation architectures, much of this information is not utilized, resulting in the signature estimates being rough approximations of the true debris signatures. PHASE I: Identify existing first-principle physics techniques for estimating solid rocket motor debris characteristics, PID characteristics, or both. Develop a methodology for importing detailed debris geometries and material characteristics for the purposes of signature estimation. RCS and/or EO/IR signature estimation codes with commensurate fidelity capabilities should be identified. Candidate procedures for direct signature measurements should be developed for the purposes of anchoring the signature estimation process. PHASE II: Begin execution of the processes developed in Phase I to generate high-fidelity signatures of solid rocket motor debris and/or PID. In parallel, anchoring of the signature estimation process developed shall be conducted using direct signature measurements of representative debris geometries. Databases of debris signatures will be constructed for the purpose of supporting MDA M & S activities and further development of a fast-running signature estimation code. The debris signature database and benchmark signature measurement comparisons will be delivered at this stage. PHASE III: The fast-running signature estimation code will be vetted and transitioned to the MDA simulation architectures for use within system-level codes and element-specific codes. Additional first-principle code predictions of debris will be added to the database and end product. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies developed in Phase II for additional DoD applications. Such applications could include signature estimation of debris for space situational awareness. REFERENCES: 1. Bohannon, G.E. and Young, N.,"Debris Size Estimation Using Average RCS Measurements,"Report No. 930781-BE-2247, XonTech Inc., Los Angeles, CA September 1993. 2. Knott, E.F., Shaeffer, J.F. and Tuley, M.T.,"Radar Cross Section 2nd Edition,"2004. 3. Resch, C.,"Exo-atmospheric Discrimination of Thrust Termination Debris and Missile Segments,"JHU/APL Technical Digest, Vol 19, Num 3, 1998.
MDA13-013: Space Radiation Environments for BMDS Missile Systems Advanced Microelectronics
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop an improved modeling & simulation tool to more accurately determine solar and cosmic ray environments for BMDS missile applications. DESCRIPTION: An improved tool to repeatedly predict solar storm and cosmic ray radiation environments/exposure which incorporates trajectories is needed by MDA to support flight experiments, flight tests and operational engagements of threats. The 2010 Defense Science Board noted that space radiation environment exposure"is certain and the impact potentially significant (e.g., trapped radiation, solar and cosmic radiation)"and Solin, et al., noted the impact on missile systems (2005 IEEE-TNS). Currently, space radiation environments are calculated using the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics (CREME96) tool which was developed for satellite systems to determine cumulative exposure while on orbit. Thus, current MDA missile systems requirements are specified referencing the CREME96 orbital solar environment conditions and the evaluation of these environments are calculated by"force-fitting"the CREME96 model using"approximations"for missile trajectories. The uncertainties of this approach are unknown and are dependent on the trajectory kinematics and location of the missile basing, as noted by a 2012 Hardened Electronics & Radiation Technology HEART conference paper by Fisher, et al. (reference 4). PHASE I: Develop a tailored MDA space and cosmic ray propagation and environment model that will correctly determine a missile"s space radiation environments throughout the time of flight. Comparative studies for MDA missions should be evaluated and reported for recommended THAAD, SM-3 and GMD scenarios. A software development plan that highlights the requirements and capabilities of the Phase II limited release beta version is required. PHASE II: A working, limited distribution version of the MDA Space and Cosmic Ray Model should be peer-reviewed by MDA and key MDA programs. Space environment model verification is encouraged. An updated software development plan is recommended. PHASE III: The final phase of the program is to integrate the model into MDA mission and operations. Application and assessment of MDA missile systems anticipated. COMMERCIALIZATION: Long range line-of-sight communications systems for satellites or aircraft. REFERENCES: 1. Report of the Joint Defense Science Board/Threat Reduction Advisory Committee Task Force on The Nuclear Weapons Effects National Enterprise, June 2010. 2. Solin, J.R., et al.,"The Cosmic Ray Environment of Tactical ABMs,"IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 52 (2) (April): 546552. 3. Lloyd Massengill, Chairman,"Single of the Radiation Concerns for Defense Systems,"2009 Hardened Electronics and Radiation Technology Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 31 March 2009. 4. Fisher, J. H., et. al.,"Solar Storm Environment Characterization and Model Needs for Suborbital Trajectories,"2012 Hardened Electronics and Radiation Technology Conference, Monterey, CA, 13 March 2012.
MDA13-014: Visible Signature Prediction Improvements
Description: OBJECTIVE: Improve the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) database, earth albedo models, and reflection algorithms for both accuracy and speed specifically in the visible wavebands. DESCRIPTION: Capability exists to accurately model a known target once the BRDF for all target materials are known and the earth albedo is accurately represented. However, the speed of these most accurate calculations prohibits its use in real-time Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) and non-real-time Monte Carlo simulations. Optical property measurements (BRDF as a function of wavelength) of target and threat representative materials are required to support signature modeling where reflection dominates the signature. The Optical Signatures Code (OSC) BRDF database should be expanded to include visible wavelength data for additional materials. Approaches to obtaining material coupons, and more automated measurement of BRDF vs wavelength are solicited. BRDF measurements and potential approximate formulas are outlined in Reference 1. Another requirement for accurate visible band signatures is accurate representation of earth albedo (solar reflections from portions of the earth to the target). This can contribute more to the visible signature of an object than direct solar to object to sensor reflections. The natural albedo function of earth is seasonal and geographically complex (see Reference 2) and is modified by the presence of clouds. Satellite earthshine data in the visible band has occasionally been used on a post-test basis, but statistical historic data is required for accurate use in pre-test visible signature often performed over possible flight test windows and on a Monte Carlo basis. This topic also emphasizes reflection algorithm improvements in order to use of BRDF measurements and earth albedo modeling vs. time of day/year. Section 3.3.6 of Reference 3 describes reflection modeling approaches in OPTISIG. While OSC/OPTISIG/FLITES include approximate algorithm options for modeling of reflection, this topic will concentrate on rigorous approaches that may make use of parallel processing (multiple CPU or GPUs) in order to achieve HWIL real time requirements. PHASE I: Identification of an upgraded reflection algorithm, programming of that algorithm in standalone simulation (or existing framework such as OSC/OPTISIG/FLITES) and sample visible signatures generated and compared to existing reflection models. This phase shall also identify sources for BRDF measurements and earth albedo/cloud data. An initial BRDF program plan shall also be developed including approaches to coupon sample acquisition, and measurement facility cost and schedule. PHASE II: During this phase, the bulk of the BRDF measurements (or effective alternative) and earth albedo/ cloud modeling shall be performed and catalogued. The reflection algorithms, new BRDF measurements and albedo modeling shall be integrated into OPTISIG at a minimum (OSC and FLITES if possible). Validation of visible signature modeling with at least 5 visible datasets obtained at the Missile Defense Data Center (Ref 4) is also required. PHASE III: This phase (if needed) shall be to expand the BRDF measurements and earth albedo data/models and aid transition to visible signature generation in HWIL and Monte Carlo simulations identified by the government. Also this phase could include mapping to multiple CPU or GPUs if it is determined that it would be beneficial to HWIL and/or Monte Carlo simulations. COMMERCIALIZATION: The proposed technology should benefit hyperspectral imaging and non-imagining applications (DoD, agriculture) as well as security and video gaming industries. REFERENCES: (Note: the inclusion of the first 3 articles below is not meant to indicate that they are to be used as data sources and algorithms in your proposal, but instead issued as guides to the range of considerations applicable to this procurement). 1. Experimental Analysis of BRDF Models, Addy Ngan, Fredo Durand, and Wojciech Matusikz, European Symposium on Rendering (2005). 2. An Improved Method for Detecting Clear Sky and Cloudy Radiances from AVHRR data, R. W. SAUNDERS and K. T. KRIEBEL, Journal of Remote Sensing, 9:1, 123-150. 3. Optical Signatures Code Volume 8 OPTISIG Algorithm Notes, Edited by Dr. Arthur E. Woodling, March 2012. 4. Missile Defense Data Center, Registration Information. https://dcp.mda.mil/MDDCCatalog/registration/RegistrationHelp.pdf
MDA13-015: Advanced Hit Detection Systems
Description: OBJECTIVE: Design, develop and ground test advanced hit detection systems (HDSs) applicable to multi-fragment blast kill devices, and/or very high speed intercepts with assured transmission of hit location to the ground. DESCRIPTION: Weapon systems that utilize a kinetic impact to damage a target rely on the accuracy of the aiming system. As a result, the accurate measurement of a weapon system impact location is a critical piece of information to assess the targeting algorithms used by the weapon system. Additionally, this information can be used to determine the potential lethality of a weapon system against a target by measuring either directly or indirectly the propagation of the projectile. Current methods to measure the location of the impact using one or a combination of visual confirmation, recording the timing of wire breaks in a witness screen, or recording the time the shock impulse passes a sensor. All of these systems have limited applicability for hypervelocity (>7 km/s) impacts or for applications consisting of more than one projectile. For target systems that must transmit the impact data, the time between first impact and when the recording and transmitting systems fail defines the amount of data, if any, is received for analysis. As impact velocities increase this time to failure decreases. Several flight testing needs are beyond the capability of current hit detection systems to record the hit location and transmit to the ground prior to destruction. Advanced hit detection systems to meet these needs are solicited. Desirable characteristics of the advanced hit detection systems are ones that meet the majority of the following capabilities: 1) works with closing velocities between 1 and 16 km/sec, 2) records multiple fragment impacts, 3) meets stated accuracy goals, and 4) has dual transmitters forward and aft. Innovative solutions to detecting the location and time of each fragment"s impact on the target surface are sought. Also essential to the success is the on-board processing, high speed telemetry transmission off-target, and possible off-board processing of the data to isolate location and time of each projectile"s impact. PHASE I: Phase I of this effort should concentrate on feasibility of a proposed approach and determine ground testing methodologies for either the multi-fragment variety of HDSs or the very high velocity variety of HDSs. The design should be complete through accurate drawings, analytical mechanical integrity analysis in a target environment, onboard information processing design, and telemetry requirements for a generic target the MIT Spherecone (data available upon award). PHASE II: Phase II should focus on detailed design for a specific target system (to be provided at the onset of Phase II), physical fabrication on a representative sample of that target system, and a ground demonstration of the technology in a hypervelocity facility for at least 6 parameter variations (e.g. number and velocity combinations for multi-fragment HDS, and strike angle and velocity combinations for the very high closing velocity HDS. Signals indicating the hot location shall be transmitted off the target as a demonstration of assured transmission of hit location(s). PHASE III: The ground proven HDS will be installed on selected MDA/TC targets (as directed by MDA/TC) and necessary ground telemetry reception shall be designed and fielded for use on an MDA scheduled flight test. COMMERCIALIZATION: The proposed technology should also be of benefit for ground vehicle automated testing as well as anti-satellite test objects. REFERENCES: 1. Telemetry Systems Engineering, Dr. Frank Carden, Artech House Telecommunications Library, ISBN-13: 978-1580532570, Jan 30, 2002. 2. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, ISSN: 0129-564, available at www.worldscientific.com/wordscinet/ijhses.
MDA13-016: Innovative methods for characterizing manufacturing defects
Description: OBJECTIVE: The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is seeking innovative concepts and products to improve the post-production Non-Destructive Inspection (NDI) for manufacturing defects of a wide range of the weapon system components. These components vary in size from a missile avionics box to the support structure for the missile round pallet. In addition, these components will have compositions that vary from metallic to composite graphite or composite thermal insulation. The overall goal of projects selected under this topic will be to develop and demonstrate innovative technologies to enable post-production NDI for micro-fractures and voids in seams and joints that will minimize delays in the production line while also being portable and having the versatility to be utilized on a variety of components throughout the production facility while strictly adhering to the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) rules on the applicable radiation within the workplace. Specifically, this research and development goal is to develop a compact and portable stand-alone detector that has the capability to be reconfigured depending upon the unit under investigation. This year"s effort is focused on the development of analytical and computation tools for demonstrating the analysis that the proposed methodology shall be able to measure the features and characteristic of the unit under investigation for a wide variety of materials as well as over a wide range of geometries using a compact and portable device. DESCRIPTION: The production of the THAAD weapon system requires the manufacturing and assembly of a set of highly varying and diverse piece parts. It is paramount for an efficient assembly line to have a robust and versatile quality inspection equipment, techniques and methodologies. This solicitation seeks to focus on the specific area of the non-destructive inspection of manufacturing defects of various seams and joints in the weapon system. The Manufacturing Defects Characterizer (MDC) shall be a compact and easily transportable device that can evaluate the seal of a composite joint or the weld of a metallic joint through the characterization of the surface and subsurface composition and physical properties. The MDC must be shown to be able to be operated in accordance to the nondestructive testing standards listed below for the range of materials and joint bonding techniques. In addition, the MDC must be shown to strictly adhere to the OSHA rules, listed below, on electromagnetic radiation within the workplace while still being able make these NDI on a variety of components throughout the production facility (i.e., not have a dedicated physical location within the production facility). OSHA and Related Ionizing Radiation Guidance, Directives, and Regulations. The following references are not intended to be complete but rather serve as a starting point for the design of the MDC: 29 CFR 1910 (e.g., 1910.1096), 29 CFR 1926 (e.g., 1926.53), 10 CFR 20 and Appendices, 10 CFR 835, applicable guidance from the OSHA Technical Manual, and other related documents. The selected provider will be expected to work closely with the THAAD Product Office Quality and Manufacturing Division and the prime contractor to accurately define interfaces and tolerances in order to facilitate utilization of the MDC in the production process. PHASE I: Conduct experimental and/or modeling efforts to demonstrate proof-of-principle of the proposed technology to detect and characterize micro-fractures and voids in a variety of relevant materials and bonded joints. Demonstrate the detector"s technological ability to meet the required safety, portability and supportability requirements. PHASE II: Build and demonstrate the functionality of a breadboard MDC and its ability to be utilized for typical form and fit THAAD hardware in a replica of its production facility. Demonstrate applicability to both selected military and commercial applications. PHASE III: The cost avoidance realized by the Missile Defense Agency and the military Services by employing this technology would be significant. Hence, the anticipated Phase III program customers would include a wide range of current weapon system programs. During Phase III, the effort calls for engineering and development, test and evaluation, and hardware qualification. COMMERCIALIZATION: The proposed technology would be anticipated to have a high level of interest as a diagnostic and quality assurance tool where ever complex sealed joints are used. REFERENCES: 1. MIL-STD-271 Requirements for Non-Destructive Testing Methods ASNT-SNT-TC-1A Standard Qualification of Non-destructive Testing Personnel 2. MIL-STD-2154 Ultrasonic Inspection of Wrought Metals 3. ASTM-E1444 Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination 4. ASTM-E1742 Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination 5. MIL-STD-6866 Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Inspection 6. MIL-STD-490 Composite Material Adhesive Bonding 7. ASTM-E2533-09 Std Guide for Non-Destructive Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites used in Aerospace 8. MIL-STD-860 Ultrasonic Adhesive Bond Testing 9. ASTM-E2581 Shearography of Polymer Composites 10. ASTM-E2662 Radiologic Examination of Composites 11. ASTM-2580 Ultrasonic Testing of Composites SAE ARP5089 Composite Repair NDT/NDI Handbook
MDA13-017: Thermal Matching Substrates for Read-In-Integrated-Circuit (RIIC) Applied to Large IRLED Arrays
Description: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this topic is to design, develop, and test a novel RI IC for driving large IRLED arrays used in complex scene ground testing of emerging MDA imaging sensors. DESCRIPTION: Ground testing of missile defense interceptors is essential to reduce flight test risk (through excursion analysis) and evaluate performance in tactical scenarios. As Imaging Infrared (IIR) sensors grow in size and speed and as scenarios become more complex, the need to develop companion ground test technology is critical. Infrared LED (IRLED) arrays represent a potentially game changing technology for presenting infrared images in sensor ground test environments offering high frame rate and high temperature simulation, while achieving superior manufacturing yield and uniformity than competing resistor array technology. The semi-conductor physics of the IRLED technology has been addressed by a number of research programs; however, material, thermal, and electrical solutions for driving individual IRLEDs at the pixel level scale (<48-microns) have not been researched. Driving large (>10242) arrays of IRLEDs present thermal, electrical, speed, and efficiency challenges that have yet to be demonstrated in conventional silicon substrates. Alternate substrate materials, such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) offer many advantages over silicon that allow them to operate at higher frequencies (>250GHz) and, with its wider bandgap, offer insensitivity to heat with improvements in noise performance and operation in radiation test environments. If a successful GaAs Read-In-Integrated-Circuit is realized, the potential of growing IRLED devices directly on the RIIC may be realized with significant gains in thermal management and radiation performance. IRLED modulation is critical for efficient operation, flexibility in the test environment, and performance across the entire dynamic range. Conventional pulse coding schemes (i.e. pulse width modulation PWM) are undesirable due to synchronization and resolution limitations. Innovative solutions should be investigated that meet the need for high rate pulsing (>MHz) to achieve optimal photonic conversion efficiency and output intensity control (i.e. Pulse Amplitude Modulation). The RIIC must ensure calibrated pixel commands at>250-Hz frame rates maintain commanded intensity output between frame updates with<1% variation. The ideal implementation would allow projector calibration and resolution characteristics that are independent of the sensor integration period and allow for asynchronous operation. The government has a significant investment in proven projector array control electronics that enable pixel by pixel calibration of highly non-linear responses; compatibility with such systems is desirable. Past RIIC designs for related technologies have suffered from electrical bottlenecks that introduce spatial non-uniformities when projecting extended images and thermal persistence due to inadequate thermal management. Analysis of current load requirements and current source design is essential to meet worst case scenarios. Integrated package design is critical to deal with thermal management requirements and to allow operation in a range of test environments, from ambient to cryogenic-vacuum. The objective of this topic is to design, develop, and test a novel RIIC for driving large IRLED arrays used in complex scene ground testing of emerging MDA imaging sensors. The electrical characteristics of the RIIC will optimize IRLED efficiency, life-time, and performance. A comprehensive systems level design approach working in consultation with experts in IRLED physics is essential to deal with the tradeoffs associated with the RIIC design requirements. Standard pixel pitch for infrared scene projectors is 48 microns; however a design risk assessment shall be given for 25 micron pixel pitch for farther-term implementation of extremely large IRLED arrays. PHASE I: Phase I should provide one or more innovative RIIC design solutions that meet performance requirements for 10242 IRLED arrays with frame updates of 250Hz and>14-bits of intensity resolution while operating at 100K substrate temperature. The design should use modeling and simulation to optimize efficiency while addressing robustness of thermal, power, and sensor timing interfaces. A test program should be defined to build prototype devices to confirm design predictions. PHASE II: Test devices will be manufactured to confirm design predictions. Based on experimental results a final design will be completed and prototype devices manufactured to verify performance. Down-selection of a design for a single color IRLED based on prototype experimental results is required. All design data will be generated for a full RIIC fabrication run, a manufacturer selected and a cost estimate obtained in preparation for Phase III activities. A design/manufacture risk study for expanding the design to 20482 400Hz operation will also be provided. PHASE III: Phase III will manufacture the final RIIC design and integrate the RIIC with IRLED arrays. Interface compatibility will be demonstrated with calibration and control electronics. The packaged IRLED array will be evaluated in terms of temporal, spatial, and radiometric characteristics. COMMERCIALIZATION: IRLED arrays have primary application for Department of Defense development and test of weapon and surveillance sensors. Other applications involve test and simulation of emergency rescue sensors, night vision systems, aircraft warning and situational awareness sensors. RIIC design advances may directly benefit applications involving visible LED arrays for projector systems and display technology. REFERENCES: 1. E.M. Golden, R. J. Rapp,"Effective and apparent temperature calculations and performance analysis of mid-wave infrared light emitting diodes for use in infrared scene projection,"Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing XV, Vol. 7663, 23 April 2010 2. J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, et al.,"Development of a mid-infrared interband cascade LED array,"Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing XIII, Proceedings Vol. 6942,16 April 2008 3. G. C. Goldsmith II, W. L. Herald, R. A. Erickson, et. al.,"Setting the PACE in IRSP: a reconfigurable PC-based array-control electronics system for infrared scene projection,"Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing VIII, Vol. 5092, 21 April 2003
MDA13-018: Atmospheric Characterization and Clouds for Directed Energy Applications
Description: OBJECTIVE: There is a need to reliably measure, analyze and forecast with adequate accuracy and precision the high altitude (upper troposphere and stratosphere to 100 kft and beyond) atmospheric conditions relevant to high energy laser propagation. While the focus of directed energy atmospheric characterization has been optical turbulence measurement and analysis, the atmospheric extinction and attenuation due to high altitude clouds and aerosols are equally important. Although the temporal and spatial frequency of moisture/clouds/aerosols producing significant attenuation of infrared electromagnetic energy is small, it remains important to diagnose and forecast such conditions. Recent advances in meteorological satellite technology and sensors, atmospheric cloud and aerosol profile measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere have significantly improved. Likewise advances in ground-based and airborne instrumentation technology have improved, but are yet to be reliably deployable for the rigors of operational use. Existing ground-based atmospheric profilers capable of measuring high altitudes are subject to low cloud impacts, and/or they are not transportable and often lack the required spatial resolution for detailed analyses. In-situ humidity measurements systems (i.e. airborne and balloon-borne platforms) typically do not operate in the extreme cold and relatively dry environment at altitudes above 50,000 feet. Previous measurement and modeling-simulation efforts have been in the lower atmosphere, or yielded capabilities lacking adequate reliability, accuracy, and precision to effectively analyze and predict the high altitude cloud environment for advanced high energy laser applications. DESCRIPTION: Develop a meteorological satellite data retrieval and analysis capability to take advantage of existing/future advanced meteorological satellite technology intelligence, and/or develop instrumentation hardware along with appropriate deployment system to effectively and efficiently measure (remote or in-situ) the high altitude atmospheric cloud conditions related to directed energy propagation. Existing balloon-borne instrumentation and sensors are not robust enough for frequent use in the field, and are subject to their own weather sensitivities (e.g. icing in tropospheric clouds, lack of measurement sensitivity in cold/dry conditions). The atmospheric conditions should focus on the moisture measurement, but also include temperature, pressure, winds, etc. The technology will likely include a combination of atmospheric measurement (in-situ or remote sensing from the ground or space) and numerical weather prediction (NWP modeling and simulation) to adequately characterize the spatial and temporal aspects of the problem. It should advance the legacy research and provide a user-friendly interface to the new technology and real-time data. PHASE I: Analyze high altitude atmospheric cloud and aerosol conditions (both frequency of occurrence and atmospheric profile structure) related to directed energy applications, and how the"Proof of Concept"instruments or satellite systems will quantitatively measure/diagnose (with appropriate accuracy and precision) this environment. Examine current/future numerical weather prediction analysis/forecast models, and how the innovative atmospheric data could be assimilated into the NWP process and improve the high cloud analysis/forecast capability. Plan for atmospheric decision assistance tool that incorporates the measured data along with the NWP into a user-friendly application/system. PHASE II: Develop prototype instrumentation (remote and/or in-situ), meteorological satellite analysis system, and atmospheric modeling analysis and forecast capability with requisite accuracy and precision to capture the cloud and aerosol impacts. Develop a user-friendly, prototype atmospheric decision assistance toolkit to assimilate the measurements from the instrumentation/space-based information along with the atmospheric model data to enhance and graphically display the atmospheric conditions for operational testing. Interface this new decision assistance system with existing/new government furnished decision tools. PHASE III: In this phase, the contractor will apply the innovations demonstrated in the first two phases to one or more MDA systems, subsystems, or components. The objective of Phase III is to demonstrate the efficient and effective instrumentation and software to characterize and forecast the directed energy atmospheric conditions, to include optical turbulence and clouds, in the troposphere and stratosphere for MDA systems; then transition the component technology to the MDA system integrator or payload contractor, mature it for operational insertion, and demonstrate the technology in an operational level environment. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in other DoD high energy laser systems, astronomy, NASA, and space based long-range secure communications. REFERENCES: 1. Mace, G. G., R. Marchand and G. L. Stephens, 2007; Global Hydrometeor Occurrence as Observed by CloudSat; Initial Observations from Summer 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34. 2. Stephens, G.L. and D.G. Vane, 2007: Cloud remote sensing from space in the era of the A-Train, J. Applied Remote Sensing, Vol. 1. 3."Ballistic Missile Defense Review,"Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense, February 2010. Available via internet at: http://www.defense.govbmdr.
MDA13-019: High Power Fiber Laser Array Pointing
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative concepts and technologies for high powered fiber laser array pointing technologies for use in MDA high energy laser systems, extending the reliability and power handling capability beyond current state of the art. Techniques should concentrate on high efficiency configurations compatible with thermal management constraints and robust scaling to multi kilo watt power levels. DESCRIPTION: This topic seeks proposals for demonstration of concepts and hardware which would enable high-brightness, high-power pointing of fiber lasers/amplifiers arrays for spectral or coherent combination. High precision exit array pointing of optical power delivered from multiple kilo watt class fiber optic amplifiers operating at ~1.06 micron wavelength in 1-D and 2-D configurations is sought. Optical power scaling architectures where multiple high power fiber amplifier outputs are to be spectrally or coherently combined; must be controlled to micro-radian tolerances for optimum power combining. This topic seeks novel solutions that provide thermal and mechanical control to maintain positioning and pointing of up to 100 fibers in dynamic operating conditions. Designs must consider unabsorbed optical amplifier pump power, higher order mode rejection and reflected power of each output fiber in the exit array. PHASE I: Evaluation metrics considered for Phase I include: Viable designs and proof of principles that demonstrate scalability to high power and high channel counts. Passive and/or active designs should be sensitive to Size Weight and Power (SWaP) considerations, adverse environmental operating conditions and serviceability including; repair of line replaceable units. Designs compatible with air-clad, high NA fibers or glass-clad gain fibers are also of interest. Phase I should concentrate on generating a design capable of handling high power and completing the analysis/demonstration of the selected approach. Modeling and simulation using existing tools are encouraged to guide the development of multi-kW capable designs in all phases of the effort. PHASE II: Evaluation metrics to be considered for Phase II include: demonstrations of 2-D exit array pointing and combining of per fiber optical power greater than 1 kilowatt in an exit array of no less than nine fibers. Teaming with owners or suppliers of high power optical amplifiers for Phase II demonstrations is encouraged since the cost of multiple optical amplifiers may be cost prohibitive. Perform reliability testing to assess array lifetime and serviceability in a BMDS environment. PHASE III: Compact, robustly packaged, and scalable laser systems would be valuable for active ranging, tracking, and characterizing targets. If scaled to high average powers, they could also be attractive as weapons for targets at long ranges. The Phase III effort will focus on work with MDA prime contractors and subsystem integrators to incorporate the fiber laser array technology demonstrated here into sensor, weapon, and targeting systems for MDA directed energy, interceptor, and platform remote sensing application along with potential use in long distance free space laser communications. COMMERCIALIZATION: Components for high power fiber laser arrays have significant potential markets in both commercial and military systems. A high power, high efficiency fiber amplifier laser system with diffraction limited beam quality will be capable of adding value to land, air and space based directed energy platforms to defend against nuclear, biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction. High energy fiber lasers are also high value sources for material processing in automotive, aircraft and other large manufacturing industries. They can also be used for decommissioning of nuclear and other hazardous manufacturing plants. High brightness fiber lasers constructed at greater than the 100 kW level with near diffraction limited beam quality and greater than 35% wall plug efficiency will be the Phase III goal in partnership with aerospace industries. REFERENCES: 1. Boehme, S., Beckert, E., Eberhardt, R., Tuennermann, A.,"Laser splicing of end caps - process requirements in high power laser applications", Proc. SPIE 7202, 2009. 2. Yablon, A. D.,"Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing", Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2005. 3. F. Gonthier, L. Martineau, N. Azami, M. Faucher, F. Seguin, D. Stryckman, A. Villeneuve,"Highpower all-fiber components: the missing link for high-power fiber lasers,"in Fiber Lasers: Tech. Syst. and Applications, Proc. SPIE 5335, 266-276 (2004). 4. A. Wetter, M. Faucher, M. Lovelady, F. Seguin, Tapered fused-bundle splitter capable of 1kW CW operation,Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 6453 Fiber Lasers IV: Technology, Systems, and Applications, photonics west 2007. 5. Bourliaguet, B. Pare, C., Edmond, F., Croteau, A.,"Microstructured fiber splicing"Opt. Express Vol. 11, No. 25, 3412 - 3417, 2003. 6. S. Richter, S. Dring, A. Tnnermann und S. Nolte, Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates", Applied Physics A; Materials Science & Processing, Vol.103, 2, 257-261. 7. Y. Xiao, F. Brunet, M. Kanskar, M. Faucher, A. Wetter, and N. Holehouse,"1-kilowatt CW all-fiber laser oscillator pumped with wavelength-beam-combined diode stacks,"Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 3296-3301 (2012). 8. J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty,"Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,"Opt. Express vol. 16, p. 13240 (2008).
MDA13-020: Beam Control For High Energy Laser Applications
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate advanced and innovative components, algorithms, and beam control electronics to reduce size, weight, and complexity while improving performance for a future high altitude directed energy system for the BMDS. Beam Control (BC) for high energy laser applications is a broad topic, the MDA focus areas for this year are listed below. The three (3) focus areas corresponding to this topic are: Focus Area 1: Large format detector arrays (scalable to 128x128) with high sensitivity, high bandwidth, and low noise are critical for long range Directed Energy (DE) engagements. Improved sensitivity enables tracking at longer ranges or reduced illuminator laser power. Wavelengths of interest are around 1 m. Focus Area 2: Innovative jitter suppression techniques (algorithms, structures, isolation, control systems, etc.) are required for DE engagements at long ranges. The ability to maintain a tightly focused beam on a target from a platform undergoing base motion disturbances is crucial. The interest remains in beam control technologies that can help mitigate the effects of jitter in realistic environments. Sub-microradian performance is desired. Focus Area 3: Small, lightweight beam control systems are required due to limited payload capacity of high altitude aircraft. Large beam director optics, optical benches, and integrating structures are a significant contributor to the size & weight of the DE weapon system. Development & demonstration of lightweight, low absorption, mirrors resistant to contamination induced damage under HEL exposure would be highly beneficial. Development and demonstration of lightweight, low jitter optical benches would also be highly beneficial. DESCRIPTION: All focus area proposed hardware must address packaging for high altitude airborne applications at a minimum and supporting interceptor applications will be considered a plus. This requires specific emphasis on size, weight and power (SWaP) for proposed electronics. The environmental parameters that should be addressed for any hardware proposed include: high altitude airborne operations in near vacuum conditions (optional traceability to space operations in vacuum a plus); components should have a shelf life of at least 5 years to accommodate payload integration and a service life of a minimum of 5 years. The components have to operate in a high altitude environment 55-65 kft. The operating temperature range drives concept and capabilities with -54 degrees C to 40 degrees C desired to cover several requirements. For long term survival temperature range -60 to 71 degrees C is desired. PHASE I: Develop a preliminary design for the proposed algorithms and electronics architecture or other BC component. Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis (MS & A) of the design must be presented to demonstrate the offeror understands the physical principles, performance potential, scaling laws, etc. MS & A results must clearly demonstrate how near-term goals will be met, at a minimum. Proof of concept hardware development and test is desirable. Proof of concept demonstration may be subscale or specific risk reduction activities associated with critical components or technologies. Test results (if performed) should be used in conjunction with MS & A results to verify scaling laws and feasibility. Phase I will include the development of plans to further develop/exploit this technology in Phase II. Offerors are strongly encouraged to work with system and/or payload contractors to help ensure applicability of their efforts and begin work towards technology transition. No specific contact information will be provided by the topic authors. PHASE II: Complete critical design of prototype component including all supporting MS & A. Fabricate a prototype or Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) and perform characterization testing within the financial and schedule constraints of the program to show level of performance achieved compared to stated government goals. In addition, environmental testing, addressing high altitude issues, is highly encouraged in this phase if selected components do not have applicable performance data. The final report shall include comparisons between MS & A and test results, including identification of performance differences or anomalies and reasons for the deviation from MS & A predictions. The contractor should keep in mind the goal of commercialization of this innovation for the Phase III effort to which end they should have working relationships with, and support from system, and/or payload contractors. PHASE III: Develop and execute a plan to market and manufacture the product developed in Phase II. Assist the Missile Defense Agency in transitioning this technology to the appropriate Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) prime contractor(s) for the engineering integration and testing. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in such diverse fields as commercial satellite imagery, optical (laser) communications, law enforcement, rescue and recovery operations, maritime and aviation collision avoidance sensors, medical uses and homeland defense applications. REFERENCES: 1."Ballistic Missile Defense Review,"Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense, February 2010. Available via internet at http://www.defense.gov/bmdr. 2. J. Dowdle and J. Negro,"Baseline Spaced-Based Laser Concepts for Integrated Control", CSDL Report Number CSDL-R-1878, the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, June 1986. 3. J. Baker, R. Dymale, R. Carreras and S. Restaino, Design and implementation for a low-cost starlight optical tracker system with 500 hz active tip/tilt control. Computers and Electrical Engineering, vol. 1, no. 11 (1998), pp. 190193. 4. JC DeBruin,"Derivation of Line-of-Sight Stabilization Equations for Gimbaled-Mirror Optical Systems", SPIE Vol.1543. 1991. 5. KB Powell, Synopsis and Discussion of"Derivation of Line-of-Sight Stabilization Equations for Gimbaled-Mirror Optical Systems", OPTI-521 Project 1, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona. 6. KW Billman, JA Breakwell, and RB Holmes,"ABL Beam Control Laboratory Demonstrator", Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3706, Airborne Laser Advanced Technology II, Aug 99 p172-179. 7. M. Romano and BN Agrawal,"Acquisition, tracking and pointing control of the Bifocal Relay Mirror spacecraft", Acta Atronautica, Volume 53, Issues 4-10, August-November 2003, pp 509-519. 8. P. Orzechowski, N. Chen, S. Gibson, and T.-C. Tsao,"Adaptive Control of Jitter in a Laser Beam Pointing System,"in Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Minneapolis, MN, USA, June 2006, pp. 27002705. 9. RJ Watkins, BN Agrawal, YS Shin, HJ Chen,"Jitter Control of Space and Airborne Laser Beams", 22nd AIAA Internationals Communications Satellite Systems Conference and Exhibit 2004, AIAA 2004-3145. 10. Sugathevan, S. and Agrawal, B."Optical Laser Pointing and Jitter Suppression using Adaptive and Feedback Control Methods,"Proceedings of Beam Control Conference, Directed Energy Professional Society, Monterey, CA, March 21-24, 2006.
MDA13-021: Critical HEL Technologies - Power Sources
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative, lightweight, and robust power system that is scalable to a system capable of powering a high energy laser. Such a power system would include the hardware and electronics necessary to power high energy laser diodes. Emphasis will be given to nonbattery based concepts. DESCRIPTION: The next generation of technology for laser weapons may require megawatts of electrical power for driving the laser and supporting systems. Compact and lightweight power generation, storage, and conditioning are necessary for transitioning the laser technology to an airborne platform for missile defense. Assume megawatts of power on-demand power for continuous laser operations for 10"s of seconds at a time with minimal down time between shots (<1 min). Assume that available on-board power is limited to 5KVA to 10KVA and is 3-phase, 115/200 VAC, line-to-neutral, up to 400 Hz variable (Ref 1). Note that on-board power is usually very noisy. Technology considered under this topic must be able to operate in a closed environment and withstand the effects of a high altitude environment. PHASE I: Develop a preliminary design through modeling, analysis, and proof-of-principle for the proposed power system or subsystem. Proof of concept hardware development and test is highly desirable. Proof of concept demonstration maybe subscale or specific risk reduction activities associated with critical components or technologies. Test results (if performed) should be used in conjunction with modeling and simulation results to verify scaling laws and feasibility. Phase I will include the development of plans to further develop/exploit this technology in Phase II. PHASE II: Complete critical design of prototype component including all supporting Model, Simulation, and Analysis (MS & A). Fabricate a prototype or Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) scalable to the power levels as described in the description and perform characterization testing within the financial and schedule constraints of the program to show level of performance achieved compared to stated government goals. In addition, environmental testing showing traceability to the flight environment is desired. The final report shall include comparisons between MS & A and test results, including identification of performance differences or anomalies and reasons for the deviation from MS & A predictions. PHASE III: Develop and execute a plan to market and manufacture the product developed in Phase II. Assist the Missile Defense Agency in transitioning this technology to the appropriate Ballistic Missile Defense System prime contractor(s) for the engineering integration and testing. The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses such as emergency power generators, photovoltaic power inverter, or electric vehicles. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in other DoD high energy laser systems and airborne/ space applications with similar power requirements. REFERENCES: 1. Luiz Andrade and Carl Tenning,"Design of the Boeing 777 Electric System,"IEEE AES Magazine, pp. 4-11, July 1992, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp= & arnumber=220573. 2. Paul N. Barnes, George A. Levin, and Edward B. Durkin,"Superconducting Generators for Airborne Applications and YBCO Coated Conductors,"2008 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, pp. 1-4, 20-24 July 2008, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp= & arnumber=4596946. 3. LaMarcus Hampton, Paul N. Barnes, Timothy J. Haugan, George A. Levin, and Edward B. Durkin,"Compact Superconducting Power Systems for Airborne Applications,"AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2061, Air Force Research laboratory, Power Generation Branch, Power Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, January 2009, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2 & doc=GetTRDoc.pdf & AD=ADA515601. 4."A320 Simulator Flight Crew Operating Manual,"STD 1.3.1, Section 1.24 Electrical, pp. 1.24.00 1.24.20, http://www.smartcockpit.com/data/pdfs/plane/airbus/A320/systems/A320-Ele... . 5. MIL-STD-704F Aircraft Electric Power Characteristics, the Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, 12 March 2004, http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/FEDMIL/std704f.pdf. 6."Aviation Electricity and Electronics -- Power Generation and Distribution,"NAVEDTRA 14323, Naval Education and Training Professional Development and Technology Center, NAVSUP Logistics Tracking Number 0504-LP-100-9601, February 2002, http://www.hnsa.org/doc/pdf/aviationpower.pdf . 7. MERCURY 50 Recuperated Gas Turbine Generator Set, Solar Turbines, http://mysolar.cat.com/cda/files/126873/7/dsm50pg.pdf. 8. PureCell Model 400, UTC Power, http://www.utcpower.com/files/PRMAN69600D.pdf. 9."The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS),"Missile Defense Agency, U.S. Department of Defense, http://www.mda.mil/system/system.html.
MDA13-022: Critical HEL Technologies - Thermal Management
Description: OBJECTIVE: Innovative techniques for cooling solid state laser systems capable of producing tens of Megajoules of heat for use on an airborne platform with weight and volume constraints. DESCRIPTION: The next generation of technology for laser weapons requires significant electrical power for driving the laser and supporting systems. Inefficiencies in the laser and supporting electrical subsystems will generate significant heat. The total heat load for a megawatt class laser is estimated to be three times the power generated. Assume laser powers on the order of megawatts with continuous operations for 10"s of seconds at a time with minimal down time between shots (<1 min). The desire to fly at higher altitudes to improve laser propagation adversely impacts the ability to dissipate heat from the aircraft (Ref 1). Also, size and weight limitations on an airborne platform will make cooling of high power electronics challenging. Compact and lightweight cooling systems are necessary for transitioning the laser technology to an airborne platform for missile defense. Technology considered under this topic must be able to operate in a closed environment except for limited air intake and venting and withstand the effects of a high altitude environment. PHASE I: Develop a preliminary design for the proposed cooling system or subsystem. Proof of concept hardware development and test is highly desirable. Proof of concept demonstration may be subscale or specific risk reduction activities associated with critical components or technologies. Test results (if performed) should be used in conjunction with modeling and simulation results to verify scaling laws and feasibility. Phase I will include the development of plans to further develop/exploit this technology in Phase II. PHASE II: Complete critical design of prototype components for cooling system or subsystem. Fabricate a prototype or Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) scalable to the power levels as described in the description and perform characterization testing within the financial and schedule constraints of the program to show level of performance achieved compared to stated government goals. PHASE III: Develop and execute a plan to market and manufacture the product developed in Phase II. Assist the Missile Defense Agency in transitioning this technology to the appropriate Ballistic Missile Defense System prime contractor(s) for the engineering integration and testing. The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses such as a mobile cooling equipment unit. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in other DoD high energy laser systems and airborne/ space applications with similar power requirements. REFERENCES: 1. Doron Bar-Shalom,"Altitude Effects on Heat Transfer Processes in Aircraft Electronic Equipment Cooling,"Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, February 1989, http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/39011/20404614.pdf?sequence=1. 2. M. Mark,"Cold Plate Design for Airborne Electronic Equipment,"IRE Transactions on Aeronautical and Navigational Electronics, pp. 30-35, March 1958, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp= & arnumber=4201576 & tag=1. 3."Cooling Techniques for High Density Electronics, Part C: Electronics Cooling Methods in Industry,"Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt, MPE 635: Electronics Cooling, Parts 19 and 20, http://www.pathways.cu.edu.eg/ec/Text-PDF/Part%20C-19.pdf, http://www.pathways.cu.edu.eg/ec/Text-PDF/Part%20C-20.pdf. 4."The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS),"Missile Defense Agency, U.S. Department of Defense, http://www.mda.mil/system/system.html.
MDA13-023: Critical DPAL Technologies - (Diode Pumps, Circulators, Optics/Coatings)
Description: OBJECTIVE: Proposals must meet one of the three objectives. DPAL (Diode Pumped Alkali Laser) offers the potential for high power and efficient operation by leveraging the advantages of solid state and gas laser systems. These lasers are produced by direct optical pumping of alkali atoms in the vapor phase. The extremely low quantum defect of the alkali system minimizes thermal loading and, like other gas lasers, the gain medium can be flowed to reduce thermal management requirements. An efficient optical pump source for diode-pumped alkali vapor lasers has the potential for scaling to extremely high-power levels for industry and military applications. DPAL technology will become viable for MDA purposes when rubidium chemisorption/contamination issues are resolved or mitigated on the optics and in the circulator system. The gain medium and the flowing system of a DPAL require materials that can survive the corrosive alkali environment and require significant improvements to the rubidium number density concentration/gradient in the gain medium. 1. Diode pumps. Develop line-narrowed, frequency stabilized diode pump sources to allow efficient resonant optical pumping of alkali laser systems. Special consideration will be given to proposals in which techniques are proposed for improved methods for fast- and slow-axis collimation (FAC and SAC) of the diode emitters; this is a critical element for minimizing the divergence of the pump beam(s) both initially and over the life of the diode array. A submittal should provide planned methods for mounting, aligning, and maintaining the stability of the collimating elements with emphasis on eliminating much of the"art"required for current assemblies. 2. Circulators. Develop and demonstrate a standard test method for the rapid assessment of the suitability of materials of construction exposed to; a. Saturated rubidium-metal vapor in helium gas in the temperature range 150 200 C b. Continuous-wave intensities on the order of tens of kW/cm2 at a wavelength of 780 nm 3. Optics/Coatings. High-performance optical substrates and coatings along with the industrial base and expertise required for developing and producing them. These are essential elements for continued successful development of high-energy lasers, sensors, countermeasures, and other optical systems for military purposes. Proposed here is the development of processes and method for production of coatings and substrates for high-energy lasers in particular and specifically for Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Systems (DPALS) which are of near-term interest. DESCRIPTION: Proposals must meet one of the following three focus areas. 1. Diode pumps. This topic addresses diode technologies with emphasis on advanced closed cycle flowing media laser systems that offer compact directed energy system solutions for future ballistic missile defense applications. One key to producing efficient systems is matching the absorption linewidth of the gain media to the emission bandwidth of the diodes. Absorption linewidths are typically on the order of 0.01 nm to 0.1 nm whereas the diode emission is typically on the order of a few nanometers. Previously, in order to obtain sufficient overlap, a combination of pressure-broadening of the gain medium and diode linewidth narrowing using external cavities was used. The pressure-broadening may produce detrimental effects in laser performance, such as beam quality degradation. Additionally, many diode-narrowing techniques are expensive and difficult to implement, thus limiting their practical use. A particular area of interest includes enabling technologies and support systems for the high-power optical pumping of alkali vapor atoms. Semiconductor diode laser technology presents the most cost-effective and scalable method to obtain the high powers and narrow spectroscopic linewidths required for these applications. Research and development is needed to realize scalable narrow-linewidth wavelength-stabilized laser diode pump sources for DPAL applications. The availability of these high-power spectroscopic pump sources would also find use in industrial and medical applications such as spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP). The main impediment to achieving these power levels has been the availability of high-power narrow spectral line-width laser diode pump sources. Traditional efforts to produce narrow-line high-power diode laser pump sources typically rely on one of three methods, each with inherent tradeoffs and limitations. Technologies that are proposed should meet or exceed the following requirements; a. Diode emission bandwidth less than or equal to 0.05nm. b. Center frequency locked to the D2 transition of one of the alkalis of interest. Rubidium is of highest interest to MDA, Cesium is the second highest, and Potassium is the third. c. The long-term frequency drift cannot exceed 3GHz. The offeror should also consider the time it takes for the system to turn on and stabilize, as ultimately this will be required to be on the order of a few seconds. Technical approaches focused on or including 2D surface emitting diode laser architectures are of specific interest. 2. Circulators. Addressed in this topic is the need for a method for assessing rapidly the suitability of a material of construction such as; a. Coated or uncoated optical surfaces, or b. Metals proposed for use in laser cavities during exposure to rubidium-metal vapor and 780 nm photons Consideration will be given to proposals in which; a. a significant number of the components of the test cell are commercially-available b. an instrumentation schedule is required in each phase of the effort for pressure, temperature, number density, and photon intensity and any other measurement deemed to be required for determination of the suitability of the material for the service cited hereinbefore c. delivery of a technical data package at completion of each phase this effort d. the effects of trace concentrations of water and oxygen on the results of the testing are clearly identified and methods identified for controlling same are required e. surface-to-volume ratio effects are clearly identified f. a proof-of-concept for the test method is demonstrated g. at least one potential commercial application is identified 3. Optics/Coatings. MDA interest in compact, high-performance lasers will be advanced by availability of durable, affordable, and readily available optical coatings and substrates; to the end the following focus areas are delineated. a. Optical coatings and substrates resistant to the effects of contamination and presence of 100m-class particles at temperatures on the order of 500 C and intensities on the order of tens of kW/cm2. b. Candidate optical coatings and substrates must be resistant to saturated Rb(v)-He(g) mixtures at temperatures on the order of 300 C and intensities on the order of tens of kW/cm2 without damage or failure. c. Coatings must be capable of being applied to high quality substrates such as sapphire d. The coating must transmit maximum and reflect minimum amount of light at D1 and D2 wavelengths of Rb e. The coating should be resistant not only to Rb vapor but also to deposition of oxides and hydroxides of Rb f. Development of new processes for production of high-quality sapphire windows with extremely low impurity levels g. Development of processes for control of bonding and thicknesses coatings on substrates such as sapphire PHASE I: Demonstrate in Phase I through modeling, analysis, and proof-of-principle experiments of critical elements of the proposed technology that the proposed approach is viable for further investigation in Phase II. Phase I work should clearly validate the viability of the technology proposed to perform in the operational environment (60,000 feet and higher) for directed energy applications in a component critical performance demonstration. Phase I will culminate in a CDR-level design. Phase I should also result in a clear technology development plan, schedule, transition risk assessment, and requirements document. For circulators, prepare and deliver a technical data package or system design description including all instrumentation as well as procedures for assessing the influence of temperature, pressure, rubidium number density, and photon intensity on a candidate optical surface both coated and uncoated. PHASE II: The Phase II objective is to demonstrate a scalable and producible technology approach that MDA users and prime contractors can transition in Phase III to their unique laser application. Validate the feasibility of the Phase I concept by development and demonstration of witness samples that will be tested to ensure compliance with requirements. Validation would include, but not be limited to, system simulations, operation in test-beds, or operation in a demonstration subsystem. The goal of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate technology viability. A partnership with a current or potential supplier of MDA systems, subsystems or components is highly desirable and should include testing of samples. The final report should include but is not limited to the methods, results, and shortcomings of claims in support of success of the candidate systems for the corresponding focus areas. For circulators, prepare and deliver a technical data package or system design description including all instrumentation as well as procedures for assessing the influence of temperature, pressure, rubidium number density, and photon intensity on a candidate metallic surface both coated and uncoated. PHASE III: In this phase, the contractor will apply the innovations demonstrated in the first two phases to one or more MDA systems, subsystems, or components. The objective of Phase III is to demonstrate the scalability of the developed technology, transition the component technology to the MDA system integrator or payload contractor, mature it for operational insertion, and demonstrate the technology in an operational level environment. For circulators, prepare and deliver a technical data package or system design description including all instrumentation as well as procedures for assessing the influence of temperature, pressure, rubidium number density, and photon intensity on a candidate metallic surface both coated (dielectric or conducting) and uncoated (bare) surfaces. Deliver a working test cell with relevant instrumentation, data acquisition system(s), and procedures to MDA. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the various technologies developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in other DoD high energy laser systems, missile windows; and other systems requiring high quality sapphire windows/ optical coatings. REFERENCES: Pumps: 1. D. Hostutler, W. Klennert, Power Enhancement of a Rubidium Vapor Laser with a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (Postprint), AFRL-RD-PS-TP- AFRL-RD-PS-TP-2009-1016, 15 September 2009, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA506024 & Location=U2 & doc=GetTRDoc.pdf. 2. DPALS symposium at the SPIE High Power and Laser Ablation (HPLA) conference, Santa Fe, 2008 (Proc SPIE, 7005). 3. W.F. Krupke, Diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) an overview, Proc. SPIE High-Power Laser Ablation, Vol. 7005, pp. 700521-13, (2008). 4. R. Magnusson, Y. Ding, K.J. Lee, D. Shin, P.S. Priambodo, P.P. Young, T.A. Maldonado, Photonic devices enabled by waveguide-mode resonance effects in periodically modulated films, Proc SPIE, Vol. 5225, No.1, pp. 20-34, (2003). 5. B. Zhdanov and R.J. Knize,Diode-pumped 10 W continuous wave cesium laser, Opt. Letters, Vol. 32, No. 15, pp. 2167-2169, (2007). 6. B. Zhdanov, T. Ehrereich, and R.J. Knize, Narrowband external cavity laser diode array, Elec. Letters, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 221-222, (2007). 7. Aleksey M. Komashko; Jason Zweiback, Modeling laser performance of scalable side pumped alkali laser (Proceedings Paper) SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7581, High Energy/Average Power Lasers and Intense Beam Applications IV, 17 February 2010. 8. Boris Zhdanov, Thomas Ehrenreich, and Randall Knize, Optically pumped alkali-vapor lasers http://spie.org/documents/Newsroom/Imported/412/2006090412.pdf. 9. Zhdanov, B.V. Stooke, A. Boyadjian, G. Voci, A. Knize, R.J., 17 Watts continuous wave Rubidium laser, IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science. CLEO/QELS 2008. 4-9 May 2008. 10."Ballistic Missile Defense Review,"Office of the U. S. Secretary of Defense, February 2010. Available via internet at http://www.defense.gov/bmdr. Circulators: 11. C. F. McDonald and M.K. Nichols,"HELIUM CIRCULATOR DESIGNCONSIDERATIONS FOR MODULAR HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR PLANT"GA Technologies, GA project 6300 Dec 1986 12. H.G. Olson and H.L. Brey,"THE FORT ST. VRAIN HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR,"Nuclear Engineering and Design 53 (1979) 133-140. Optics and coatings: 13. S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, C. J. Erickson, M. V. Romalis, A. R. Young, and W. Happer,"Theory of spin-exchange optical pumping of 3He and 129Xe", Phys. Rev. A., 58, p. 1412-1439 (1998). 14. DPALS symposium at the SPIE High Power and Laser Ablation (HPLA) conference, Santa Fe, 2008 (Proc SPIE, 7005). 15. W.F. Krupke, Diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) an overview, Proc. SPIE High-Power Laser Ablation, Vol. 7005, pp. 700521-13, (2008). 16. B. Zhdanov, T. Ehrereich, and R.J. Knize, Narrowband external cavity laser diode array, Elec. Letters, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 221-222, (2007). 17. Aleksey M. Komashko; Jason Zweiback, Modeling laser performance of scalable side pumped alkali laser (Proceedings Paper) SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7581, High Energy/Average Power Lasers and Intense Beam Applications IV, 17 February 2010. 18. Boris Zhdanov, Thomas Ehrenreich, and Randall Knize, Optically pumped alkali-vapor lasers http://spie.org/documents/Newsroom/Imported/412/2006090412.pdf. 19. Zhdanov, B.V. Stooke, A. Boyadjian, G. Voci, A. Knize, R.J., 17 Watts continuous wave Rubidium laser, IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science. CLEO/QELS 2008. 4-9 May 2008. 20."Ballistic Missile Defense Review,"Office of the U. S. Secretary of Defense, February 2010. Available via internet at http://www.defense.gov/bmdr.
MDA13-024: High-sensitivity Detectors
Description: OBJECTIVE: The goal is to improve upon the current performance in detector technologies. Of particular interest is improvement in photon counting detector technology. DESCRIPTION: This topic addresses photon counting detector arrays that enable next generation sensors and improve the performance to support future directed energy missile defense missions. Topic emphasis should be placed on semiconductor electronic devices as opposed to conventional photomultiplier tubes. For semiconductor devices, photon counting is typically obtained using avalanche multiplication through linear-mode avalanche photodiodes and Geiger-mode photodiodes. Single photon detection is achieved with devices that exhibit high quantum efficiency, high gain and low dark count rates. A wide range of semiconductor material can be used in the multiplication regions, including Silicon, Germanium, InGaAs, InAs, and HgCdTe. In addition, hybrid photon counting devices that combine semiconductor technology with vacuum technology exist. The choice of the material for the photon counting devices depends on several different factors, including the spectral range and the gain. Currently, spectral ranges of interest are from the visible to the near-IR. Applications of these photon counting technologies include acquisition, tracking, and pointing of high power directed energy systems on next generation airborne platforms. In addition, wavefront sensing applications exist and, therefore, linear-mode devices are of particular interest. PHASE I: Demonstrate single photon detection through Modeling, Simulations, and Analyses (MS & A) and proof of principle experiments of the critical elements for the proposed photon counting technology. Phase I should validate the feasibility of the proposed technology. Phase I should conclude with a review of a technical data package for the proposed photon counting technology that includes the design, requirements, predicted performance, MS & A algorithms, and a clear/concise technology development plan and schedule. The contractor is encouraged to collaborate and cultivate relationships with other systems and/or payload contractors to ensure the applicability of the technology and to initiate efforts towards technology transition. PHASE II: Fabricate a prototype or engineering demonstration unit of the photon counting detector. Perform characterization testing within the program constraints of cost and schedule. The characterization tests should show the performance achieved for the technology. Performance parameters should include dark count rate, gain, crosstalk, pixel pitch, quantum efficiency, photon detection efficiency, jitter, etc., and be stated as a function of the bias voltages and temperatures. Environmental testing such as vibration and thermal testing is highly encouraged. Phase II concludes with a final report that should include design specifications, performance, and comparisons between MS & A and the detector performance data should be noted. During Phase II, the contractor should continue to collaborate and cultivate relationships with other system and/or payload contractors while considering the overall objective commercialization of the photon counting technology in Phase III. PHASE III: In Phase III the contractor will develop and execute a plan to market and manufacture the detector technology in Phase II. The contractor will assist the Missile Defense Agency in transitioning the photon counting technology to the appropriate prime contractor for engineering integration and testing. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will pursue commercialization of the photon counting detector technology developed in Phase 2 for potential commercial uses in other DoD applications as well as applications for NASA and Homeland Defense. In addition, there are potential applications for photon counting technologies in a wide range of diverse fields that include commercial satellite imagery, optical and free space communications, law enforcement, rescue and recovery operations, maritime and aviation sensor, spectroscopy, atmospheric measurement (in-situ and remote sensing), and terrain mapping. REFERENCES: 1. Campbell, J.C., Recent Advances in Avalanche Photodiodes: Ultraviolet to Infrared, IEEE Photonics Conference (2011). 2. Krainak, M.A., et. al., Laser Transceivers for Future NASA Missions, SPIE Laser Technology for Defense and Security VIII, Proc. SPIE 8381, 8381OY, May 2012. 3. Marshal, A.R.J., et. al., High Speed InAs Electron Photodiodes Overcome the Conventional Gain-bandwidth Product Limit, Opt. Exp., 19, 23341 (2011). 4. Finger, G. et. al. Evaluation and Optimization of NIR HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Adaptive Optics and Interferometry, SPIE High Energy, Optical, and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy V, Proc SPIE 8453, 8453OT (2012). 5. Beck, J.D., et. al., Linear Mode Photon Counting with the Noiseless Gain HgCdTe e-APD, SPIE Advanced Photon Counting Techniques V, Proc. SPIE 8033, 8033ON (2011). 6. Wei, H., et. al., Linear-mode Characteristics of Near-Infrared Wavelengths InGaAs APDs for Optical Communication, SPIE International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging, Proc. SPIE 8193, 819349 (2011). 7. Aebi, V.W., et.al., Multichannel Intensified Photodiode for Near Infrared Single Photon Detection, SPIE Advanced Photon Counting Techniques V, Proc. SPIE 8033, 8033OT (2011). 8."Ballistic Missile Defense Review,"Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense, February 2010. Available via internet at: http://www.defense.govbmdr.
MDA13-025: Innovative Advancement and Maturation of Propulsion Materials
Description: OBJECTIVE: Identify, develop, and mature novel, high temperature, and high performance materials for rocket propulsion systems such as SM-3 Blk2B to reduce density, cost, and/or foreign reliance and to increase insulative capability, geometric stability, ablation resistance, and/or increase maturity level. DESCRIPTION: MDA divert and boost propulsion systems have stringent material performance requirements regarding thermal and mechanical properties under Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) and temperature rise rate conditions. New and innovative low density, ablation-resistant, and/or highly insulating materials are desired to reduce mass and volume of propulsion system and enable longer system operation times (up to several hundred seconds). The extremely high temperature rise rates result in steep temperature gradients and associated large thermal stresses, which point to ceramic matrix composites or toughened ceramics as material solutions. While polymer composites (e.g., carbon- and silica-phenolic) exhibit low density and very low thermal diffusivity, pyrolysis yields highly non-uniform and time-dependent thermal expansion, which compromises component geometric stability. New materials are desired that exhibit the very low thermal diffusivity of phenolic composites, yet also display temperature and geometric stability. Current UHT continuous fiber ceramic composites employ high cost fabrication processes and lengthy fabrication times. New or modified fabrication processes are desired to reduce cost and fabrication time. Important properties to be considered during material processing selection include those that produce materials with high temperature capability, high strength, low density, ablation-resistance, and/or low thermal diffusivity. Other factors to consider include multi-dimensionally flexible fiber architecture, design and design methodology (e.g., simpler design methodology for isotropic materials), and porosity (which typically increases design complexity). Materials under consideration include: New structural insulation materials that support ablation-resistant flow-path liner materials. Divert components are attached to the propulsion system"s primary structures and electronic components, which cannot tolerate high temperatures. Current pyrolyzing insulation materials, such as a carbon- and silica-phenolic, have excellent thermal diffusivities but are not dimensionally stable over the projected axial and divert propulsion operation times (up to several hundred seconds). Non-pyrolyzing insulation materials have poor mechanical properties and/or insufficiently low thermal diffusivity. Optimal structural insulation materials are dimensionally stable up to the 3000-4000 degrees F (1650-2200 degrees C) temperature range, have a minimum compressive strength of approximately 10 ksi (70 MPa), and possess a target thermal diffusivity of 10-3 in2/sec (6.5 x 10-3 cm2/cm). It is recognized that structural and thermo-structural performance is a complex function of strength, thermal, and other physical properties. Ablation-resistance is not a requirement for structural insulation materials. All-domestic production is required. Accelerated maturation of current materials under development will be considered. Ablation-resistant flow-path divert and boost nozzle materials. Such materials will be subjected to pressures up to 3000 psi and flame temperatures in the 3000-6000 degrees F (1650-3400 degrees C) temperature range. The materials must be able to tolerate large temperature gradients, such as those experienced at motor initiation, and be able to survive multiple ignition re-starts for the several hundreds of seconds during operation. Although a typical strength minimum may be 50 ksi (350 MPa), it is noted that performance is also a complex function of other physical and thermal properties. Low thermal diffusivity is desired but not required. Low cost materials and fabrication processes as well as relatively simple design approaches are desired. All-domestic production is required. Accelerated maturation of current materials under development will be considered. PHASE I: Identify high payoff material(s) and develop an innovative, low-cost fabrication approach for composition(s) suitable for divert and/or boost motor systems. Identify critical variables and conduct suitable experiments verifying the viability of proposed fabrication processes. With guidance from a propulsion and/or thermal protection systems prime contractor, formulate a component fabrication development plan for application into an MDA system. PHASE II: Develop and confirm the proposed material(s) and fabrication technique(s) identified in Phase I. Identify critical properties for the selected propulsion application and conduct property characterization to provide confidence for successful demonstration testing. Fabricate prototype components for demonstration testing in relevant environments. Conduct an initial fabrication series that demonstrates production reproducibility and enables initial database development concerning critical ablation, physical, thermal, and mechanical properties. PHASE III: Transition the fabrication process and suitable component(s) into an MDA propulsion system. With adequate propulsion prime investment, continue application demonstrations and development of appropriate physical, thermal, and mechanical property databases. COMMERCIALIZATION: New and highly innovative UHT materials may have applicability to MDA missile systems, space launch vehicles, gas turbines, and automotive technologies. REFERENCES: 1. George T. Sutton,"Rocket Propulsion Elements; Introduction to the Engineering of Rockets"Seventh Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2001. 2. Missile Defense Agency Link: http://www.acq.osd.mil/mda/mdalink/html/mdalink.html 3. Ballistic Missile Defense Basics: http://www.acq.osd.mil/mda/mdalink/html/basics.html 4. Opeka, M., Thermodynamics-Based Materials Selection for Corrosion-Resistant Performance in High-Temperature Missile Propulsion Systems. Part I. Consideration of Condensed Phase Equilibria, Proceedings ECS Conference on Ultra-High-Materials, 2004.
MDA13-026: Seeker Sensor System for a Projectile Based Kill Vehicle
Description: OBJECTIVE: Innovative concepts for a seeker sensor system on a hypersonic gun launched projectile. The seeker sensor system should be capable of surviving a gun launch and provide guidance for hypersonic projectiles. DESCRIPTION: Current Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems utilize missile interceptors to place a maneuvering kill vehicle onto an intercept course with an enemy ballistic missile. Recent advancements in gun technology, in particular railgun technology, have opened the possibility to projectile-based kill vehicles. Current railgun technology is sufficient to place a kill vehicle into position for exoatmospheric intercepts assuming the kill vehicle components are capable of surviving the gun launch and a short hypersonic flight out of the atmosphere. MDA is looking for sensor system concepts for a notional 40 mm diameter long finned railgun projectile. The sensor system must balance axisymmetrically about the centerline and be in a forward-looking position. Sensor system concepts should be capable of insertion in a projectile with an initial mass of 12 kg and velocity of 2 km/sec with a total seeker sensor system weight of less than 1.5 kg, including optical and electronic components. The seeker sensor system must be capable of surviving a 30,000 g gun launch and survive the hypersonic transit at Mach 6 through the atmosphere without appreciable impact upon the electronic systems and the aerodynamics of the projectile while inside the atmosphere. PHASE I: During the Phase I contract, successful proposers shall conduct a proof of concept study that focuses on the feasibility of designing a seeker sensor system for a projectile based kill vehicle. Aerothermodynamic analysis will be required to determine the IR signature created by the hypersonic shockwave. Analysis should reveal the sensor"s required wavelength, sensitivity, and the minimum altitude at which the sensor system will successfully operate at the given launch conditions. The proposer shall further their proof of concept study by performing component shock testing on critical components/connections of the system. Special emphasis on launch survivability will be required, including hard force and electromagnetic effects testing to ensure the system can avoid catastrophic failures during launch. A final proposed concept design, to include a detailed description of the aerothermal dynamic analysis results and the launch survivability testing results, is expected at the completion of the Phase I effort. PHASE II: If selected for a Phase II, the proposer shall complete a detailed seeker sensor system design for a notional projectile that will lead to a critical design review of the concept for evaluation for potential gun launch testing that includes a method of data recovery either during flight or after projectile recovery. Upon successful design review, proposer will fabricate a prototype seeker sensor system for potential live fire testing. PHASE III: Phase III selections will have adequate support from a MDA prime or seeker vendor. The proposer shall continue testing and development with a MDA prime or seeker vendor to refine performance and reliability characteristics. COMMERCIALIZATION: New and highly innovative seeker systems may have applicability to MDA missile systems, commercial Micro-Sat launches, and other commercialized technology fields which require durable miniaturized sensors. REFERENCES: 1. McNab, Ian R.,"Launch to Space with an Electromagnetic Railgun", IEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2003 2. http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=70058
MDA13-027: Divert and Attitude Control System for a Projectile Based Kill Vehicle
Description: OBJECTIVE: Innovative concepts to place a Divert and Attitude Control System (DACS) onto a hypersonic gun launched projectile. This will enable low cost projectile based ballistic missile defense systems. DESCRIPTION: Current Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems utilize missile interceptors to place a maneuvering kill vehicle onto an intercept course with an enemy ballistic missile. The maneuvering kill vehicle often maneuvers at altitudes where atmospheric density is either too small or non-existent for atmospheric maneuvering techniques. Current DACS technology is based on compressed cold gas, solid fuel, or liquid fuel thruster systems. Recent advancements in gun technology, in particular railgun technology, have opened the possibility to projectile based kill vehicles. Current railgun technology is sufficient to place a kill vehicle into position for exoatmospheric intercepts assuming the kill vehicle components are capable of surviving the gun launch and short hypersonic flight out of the atmosphere. MDA is looking for DACS concepts for a notional railgun projectile that is based upon a 40 mm diameter long rod finned projectile. The DACS must be balanced symmetrically about the centerline and may be split into a forward and rear section along the projectile. The DACS concepts may be cold gas, solid fueled hot gas, or a combination and capable of diverting a projectile with an initial mass of 12 kg to 2 km/sec with a total DACS weigh less than 7 kg. The DACS must be capable of surviving a 30,000 g gun launch and survive the hypersonic transit at Mach 6 through the atmosphere without appreciable impact upon the aerodynamics of the projectile while inside the atmosphere. PHASE I: During the Phase I contract, the proposer shall conduct a design study that shows the feasibility of the concept including numerical simulation of the proposed concept performance. Fundamental concepts may be proven through bench testing or CFD analysis. Critical components/connections shall be shock tested to verify the feasibility of the concept. A final concept design will be presented at the completion of the Phase I effort. PHASE II: If selected for a Phase II, the proposer shall complete a detailed design leading to a critical design review of the concept for evaluation for potential gun launch testing. Upon successful design review, a set of three prototype DACS will be fabricated. Two of the DACS will be constrained-fired by the proposer to demonstrate system operation with the third reserved for possible inclusion in a live fire test of a prototype nominal projectile. PHASE III: Phase III selections will have adequate support from a MDA prime or propulsion vendor. The proposer shall continue testing and development with a MDA prime or propulsion vendor to refine performance and reliability characteristics. COMMERCIALIZATION: Commercial Micro-Sat launch. REFERENCES: 1. McNab, Ian R.,"Launch to Space with an Electromagnetic Railgun", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2003. 2. http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=70058
MDA13-028: High Frame Rate and Dual Band Infrared FPA Sensors for Interceptors
Description: OBJECTIVE: To develop advanced Infrared Focal Plane Array (IR FPA) sensors for next generation ballistic missile defense applications that enable long distance target acquisition with light-weight/small optical systems. DESCRIPTION: Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) are essential components in Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) interceptor seeker system for the detection of infrared radiation. The IR seeker performs detection, tracking, discriminating and aim point selection functions by measuring a series of physical variables of single or multiple targets at higher frame rate. New low cost infrared materials that have the theoretical promise to outperform existing materials such as mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) and indium antimonide (InSb), with improved operability, yield, and cost benefits are of high interest for missile detection applications. It is imperative that the material performance exceeds that of current material systems. In the past few years, quantum structures such as nBn and Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) have shown impressive initial results and are in active development for transition from single elements to large format FPAs by the Services. This topic is seeking innovative ideas to develop infrared detectors and FPAs by extending nBn"s capability for detection to the long-wave (LW) IR spectrum and continue development of producible FPA using III-V materials with advanced quantum structures, such as antimony (Sb)-based SLS. In this topic, MDA supports the development and transition of advanced antimony-based III-V FPAs. This topic is seeking innovative ideas to develop high frame rate and dual band LWIR FPAs with high quantum efficiency (QE>70%) and large formats (512x512 or greater) which will provide long detection range with a wide field-of-view against low background fluxes. Novel ideas are also solicited for the identification of minority carrier lifetime limiting defects for SLS structures and methods for improvement. New growth technologies or procedures for reducing defect occurrence and ways to mitigate defect influence are requested, with a goal of achieving minority carrier lifetimes close to the theoretical limit. Systematic investigations are necessary to reveal the predominant defect types (e.g., point defects, interfaces, and dislocations) and the quantitative contribution from each component. PHASE I: Design, develop, and demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative infrared long wavelength (8-12 um) dual band FPA technology, that will meet the requirements: At operating temperatures higher than 77 Kelvin and cutoff wavelength of 12 micron, readout rates of 400 frames per second or greater, the quantum efficiency should be larger than 70% and the dark current density should be less than 1 micro-ampere per square centimeter. Close collaboration between research institutions and small businesses with coherent goals and work plans is desired. PHASE II: Fabrication of a dual band FPA with a format of 512x512 or larger and pixel pitch of 30 microns or smaller should be the goals for successful demonstration of proposed technologies. Characterization of prototype FPA with improved characteristics than current state of the art is of interest. At the end of Phase II, the contractor is expected to deliver an FPA and auxiliary interface electronics to a third-party government laboratory for test and validation of the proposed technology. It would be beneficial for the contractor to collaborate with missile defense prime contractors for desired system requirements, and identify technology insertion opportunity. PHASE III: Assist the Missile Defense Agency in transitioning the technology to the appropriate Ballistic Missile Defense System prime contractors for the engineering integration and testing. Work closely with interceptor system house for technology maturation and technology insertion. Develop and execute a plan for marketing and manufacturing. COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor shall pursue commercialization of the various technologies and EO/IR components developed in Phase II for potential commercial uses in such diverse fields as law enforcement, rescue and recovery operations, maritime and aviation collision avoidance sensors, medical uses, homeland defense, and other infrared detection and imaging applications. REFERENCES: 1. SPIE proceedings on Infrared Technology and Applications, 2006-2012. 2. M. Tidrow, L. Zheng, S. Bandara, N. Supola, L. Aitcheson,"Meeting the technical challenges of SLS, a new infrared detector material for the Army,"Proceedings of Army Science Conference (2010).
MDA13-029: Copper Wire Bonding Assurance for Microcircuits in Military Applications
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop product assurance and reliability prediction methods for microcircuit copper wire bonds used in military applications. DESCRIPTION: This project will develop reliability prediction models and screening, lot sampling, and qualification test methods to assure that copper wire bonds meet military application requirements across the broad range of military application environmental and operating stresses. Military systems rely almost entirely on the commercial electronics industrial base that has rapidly transitioned from gold wire bonds to copper wire bonds. Copper wire bonding has unique process requirements, such as the need for inert gas at flame-off to prevent copper oxidation, and different failure mechanisms compared to gold wire bonding that has been the primary die to lead frame interconnect for many decades. The commercial industrial base does not utilize lot testing to assess product and process performance, as most customer requirements do not require that level of product assurance, but military systems typically have very high consequences of failure that require high confidence in product performance. The relative immaturity of copper wire bonding in the commercial electronics industrial base requires proactive measures to assure military performance. Recent industry briefings and technical journal papers (references 1 and 2) indicate several failure mechanisms that require assessment for military and other high performance systems, as they suggest military applications could experience significantly earlier failures than experienced with gold wire bonds. This project will provide the ability to continue to successfully utilize the commercial electronics industrial base that will likely completely transition to copper wire bonding within the next two years for military systems. PHASE I: Identify copper wire bond failure mechanisms likely to impact military system performance and possible screening, lot testing, and qualification test requirements to assure that copper wire bonds meet military system requirements. Identify possible process control methods that the commercial industrial base could adopt to enhance microcircuit reliability and quality. Perform initial testing to validate methods to provide copper wire bond product assurance in military applications. PHASE II: Determine acceleration factors for the stresses imposed on military applications, such as humidity, temperature cycling, corrosive elements contamination, and operation. Perform testing and analysis to validate copper wire bond product assurance methods, including testing on commercial parts used in military applications. Address microcircuit packaging variation, such as mold compound and assembly cleanliness, delamination, bonding stress on die, die bond pad properties (e.g., metal type, layers, and thickness), and die structural stress/fracture from the bonding process. Address the wire bond joint intermetallic compound influence on wire bond joint integrity. Validate reliability prediction models for copper wire bonds in military applications. PHASE III: Perform validation testing for various intended applications. COMMERCIALIZATION: The results of this project will have direct correlation to non-military applications, such as automotive systems, which will present near-term opportunities for commercialization, as well as for reliability prediction tools that can be integrated with general microcircuit reliability prediction tools, such as those that identify wear-out times under various use applications. REFERENCES: 1. Z.W. Zhong, Overview of wire bonding using copper wire or insulated wire, Microelectronics Reliability, Volume 51, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 412. 2. A.J. Griffin, Jr., The Systematic and Random Interfacial Oxidation Mechanisms of Copper Wirebonds to Aluminum Bond Pads, Automotive Electronics Council Reliability Workshop, 2012.
MDA13-030: Complex Electronic Assembly Cleanliness Requirements
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop cleanliness requirements for microelectronics in high reliability, long-life military applications. DESCRIPTION: This project will develop suitable cleanliness requirements and test methods to assure reliability of microelectronic assemblies across the broad range of military application environmental and operating stresses. The primary reliability impacts of insufficient cleaning include the growth of dendrites that can cause short circuits, corrosion of interconnects that cause open and short circuits, and impediment to proper adhesion of conformal coatings. Industry standards for electronics cleanliness exist (references 1-5), but they have not maintained currency with continuous electronics miniaturization and the attendant greater propensity of localized active residues (reference 6). PHASE I: Determine state-of-art in electronics assembly cleanliness testing and suitable requirements for military applications, based on applicable failure mechanisms. Develop and evaluate concepts to objectively assess risk of insufficient cleaning to derive proper cleanliness requirements, including identification of all relevant failure mechanisms. PHASE II: Perform testing and analysis to validate suitable cleanliness requirements dependent on application requirements. The cleanliness requirements and test methods should address electronic assembly device, package, materials, and process variation. The results of the testing and analysis must provide sufficient technical merit to support implementation of improved industry standards. PHASE III: Perform validation testing for various intended applications. COMMERCIALIZATION: The cleanliness requirements and testing methods that result from this project will have direct applicability to high reliability, non-military applications, such as automotive and medical systems, which will present near-term opportunities for commercialization, as well as support continued miniaturization of consumer electronics. REFERENCES: 1. IPC J-STD-001E, Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies, Section 8, 2010. 2. IPC-5704, Cleanliness Requirements for Unpopulated Printed Boards, 2009. 3. IPC-TM-650, Test Methods Manual, 2007. 4. IPC-TR-583, An In-Depth Look At Ionic Cleanliness Testing, 2002. 5. IPC-9201A, Surface Insulation Resistance Handbook, 2007. 6. Bixenman, M., Cleaning Integrated Circuit Packages. SMTA IWLPC Wafer Level Packaging Conference. SMTA, Santa Clara, CA, 2009.
MDA13-031: Advanced Solid Propellants for Insensitive Munitions Compliant Interceptor Systems
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate solid propellant formulations for large solid rocket motors (SRM) (21"diameter and up) that meet Department of Defense (DoD) insensitive munitions (IM) and MIL-STD-2105D requirements as well as 1.3C or better hazard classification while maintaining high performance capability. DESCRIPTION: Defending against current and future ballistic missile threats requires high performance interceptor missile capabilities. High performance is linked to booster burnout velocity. Many high performance boosters utilize solid propellants that contain constituents that are sensitive to stimuli such as shock, thermal exposure, and electrostatic discharge (ESD). This presents risk to personnel transporting and handling these SRM"s and associated propellants. To mitigate these risks, advanced solid propellant formulations resulting in improved safety, handling, transportation, and storage characteristics while maintaining or increasing specific performance are desired. Specifically, new propellant formulations and/or replacements for sensitive, highly energetic additives such as RDX and HMX are needed. Consideration should be given to propellant features such as large critical diameter, low burning rate exponent, and burning rate at ambient pressure. Additionally, propellants should be insensitive to ESD, thermal exposure, and shock to prevent unintended ignition during handling and transportation. New propellants must be able to meet 1.3C or better hazard classification and pass the following standardized IM test parameters and passing criteria as defined by MIL-STD-2105D and associated NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG): Fast Cook-off (STANAG 4240); Slow Cook-off (STANAG 4382); Bullet Impact (STANAG 4241); High-Velocity Fragment Impact (STANAG 4496); Sympathetic Detonation (STANAG 4396). Existing solid propellant formulations may also be modified to enhance safety properties while maintaining or increasing performance. An example would be building on the 90% solid loading HTPB/Al/AP formulation (which passes the card gap test in the 1.44 inch configuration with zero cards and has a hazard classification of 1.3C) to increase the critical diameter above the approximate 3.25 inches, thus reducing detonability when used in larger diameter rocket motors. PHASE I: Develop a proof-of-concept solution; identify candidate propellant chemistries, test capabilities, and conduct initial performance predictions. Produce small quantities of propellants (burn rate samples) to perform preliminary laboratory level assessments of performance and hazard characteristics. Results from the design and assessment will be documented for Phase II. PHASE II: Expand on Phase I results by producing propellant in sufficient quantity to demonstrate performance and MIL-STD-2105D IM compliance in relevant test environment. IM compliance can be subscale tests (e.g. 25% scale of an operational motor) but should show logical interpretation to show likelihood of success at full scale. Demonstrate that propellants can pass Naval Ordnance Lab card gap test for 1.3 designation and show that critical diameter is sufficiently large to prevent detonability in large diameter rocket motors. Perform appropriate performance characterization and testing (e.g. subscale heavyweight thruster/motor tests). Manufacturing and quality control processes should be identified to minimize batch-to-batch variability. PHASE III: The developed propellant should have direct insertion potential into missile defense systems. Conduct engineering and manufacturing development, test, evaluation, qualification. Demonstration would include, but not limited to, demonstration in a real system or operation in a system level test-bed with insertion planning for a missile defense interceptor. COMMERCIALIZATION: The technologies developed under this SBIR topic should have applicability to defense industry as well as other potential applications such as commercial space flight and commercial industries which employ the use of energetic chemicals. REFERENCES: 1. George P. Sutton,"Rocket propulsion Elements; Introduction to Engineering of Rockets"7th edition, John Willey & Sons, 2001. 2. US Insensitive Munitions Policy Update, DTIC 3. MIL-STD-2105D 4. Yang, Brill, and Ren,"Solid Propellant Chemistry Combustion and Motor Interior Ballistics"
MDA13-032: Advanced Liquid Propellants for Insensitive Munitions Compliant Interceptor Systems
Description: OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate liquid propellant formulations that meet Department of Defense (DoD) Insensitive Munitions (IM) requirements while maintaining high performance capability. The goal is to develop and demonstrate liquid propellants for advanced interceptor systems (boosters and Divert and Attitude Control Systems (DACS)) that can be proven to be safe for storage, handling, transportation, and shipboard use. DESCRIPTION: Defeating current and future ballistic missile threats requires interceptor missiles with flexible basing options, boosters with high burnout velocity, and kill vehicles with high performance DACS. High performance liquid propellants are typically very toxic, corrosive, and sensitive to shock. Likewise, transportation and storage of these missiles and associated propellants presents significant risk to ground personnel, particularly when ship basing. To mitigate this risk, advanced liquid propellant chemistry resulting in improved specific performance, operational flexibility, and maintenance/support requirements are desired. Formulations may be monopropellant or bipropellant (gels acceptable) and should address the following: Meet the following standardized IM test parameters and passing criteria as defined by MIL-STD-2105D and associated NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG): Fast Cook-off (STANAG 4240); Slow Cook-off (STANAG 4382); Bullet Impact (STANAG 4241); High-Velocity Fragment Impact (STANAG 4496); Sympathetic Detonation (STANAG 4396) High performance: Isp>285 sec, density Isp>375 g-s/cc (Pc=1000 psi, Pa=Vacuum, Expansion ratio = 50) Low corrosivity, minimal toxicity Insensitive to adiabatic compression Consideration should be given to vapor pressure, toxicity, and volatility of propellant vapors and/or constituents. Low vapor pressure is highly desired in order to reduce the formation of potentially hazardous vapor. Likewise, any solute that may condense out of solution should not have hazardous properties. While new propellant formulations are desired, additives or treatments for current formulations that enhance safety properties while maintaining or increasing performance is also acceptable. Additionally, consideration should be given to material compatibility to reduce costs associated with exotic materials as well as extend in-service storage life. Propellants should be stable in long-term storage for a minimum of 15 years with an objective of 20 years or more. As previously stated, the goal of this topic is to develop liquid propellants that will allow more IM compliant missile systems. Therefore, it is essential that propellants shall be able to pass the IM standard test requirements identified above. Refer to MIL-STD-2105D for definition of tests and pass criteria. PHASE I: Develop a proof-of-concept solution; identify candidate propellant chemistries, test capabilities, and conduct initial performance predictions at Pc=1000 psi, Pa=Vacuum, Expansion ratio = 50. Produce small quantities of propellants to assess hazard properties (toxicity, vapor pressure, etc) in laboratory level tests. Results from the design and assessment will be documented for Phase II. PHASE II: Expand on Phase I results by producing propellant in sufficient quantity to demonstrate performance and MIL-STD-2105D IM compliance in relevant test environment. IM compliance can be subscale tests (e.g. 25% scale of an operational motor) but should show logical interpretation to show likelihood of success at full scale. Perform appropriate performance characterization and testing (e.g. subscale heavyweight thruster/motor tests). Manufacturing and quality control processes should be identified to minimize batch-to-batch variability. PHASE III: The developed propellant should have direct insertion potential into missile defense systems. Conduct engineering and manufacturing development, test, evaluation, qualification. Demonstration would include, but not limited to, demonstration in a real system or operation in a system level test-bed with insertion planning for a missile defense interceptor. COMMERCIALIZATION: The technologies developed under this SBIR topic should have applicability to defense industry as well as other potential applications such as commercial space flight and commercial industries which employ the use of energetic chemicals. REFERENCES: 1. George P. Sutton,"Rocket propulsion Elements; Introduction to Engineering of Rockets"7th edition, John Willey & Sons, 2001. 2. US Insensitive Munitions Policy Update, DTIC 3. MIL-STD-2105D