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FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR

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Agency: Department of Energy
Program/Year: Both / 2014
Solicitation Number: DE-FOA-0000969
Release Date: August 12, 2013
Open Date: August 12, 2013
Close Date: October 15, 2013
Description: The Nuclear Physics program supports a broad range of activities aimed at research and development related to the science, engineering, and technology of heavy-ion, electron, and proton accelerators and associated systems. Research and development is desired that will advance fundamental accelerator technology and its applications to nuclear physics scientific research. Areas of interest include the basic technologies of the Brookhaven National Laboratorys Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with heavy ion beam energies up to 100 GeV-nucleon and polarized proton beam energies up to 255 GeV; technologies associated with RHIC luminosity upgrades; the development of an electron-ion collider; linear accelerators such as the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF); and development of devices and-or methods that would be useful in the generation of intense rare isotope beams for the rare isotope beam accelerator facility (FRIB). A major focus in all of the above areas is superconducting radio frequency (RF) acceleration and its related technologies. Relevance of applications to nuclear physics must be explicitly described. Grant applications that propose using the resources of a third party (such as a DOE laboratory) must include, in the application, a letter of certification from an authorized official of that organization. All grant applications must explicitly show relevance to the nuclear physics program.
b: Radio Frequency Power Sources
Description: Grant applications are sought to develop designs, computer-modeling, and hardware for 5-20 kW continuous wave (cw) power sources at distinct frequencies in the range of 50-1500 MHz. Examples of candidate technologies include: solid-state devices, multi-cavity klystrons, Inductive-Output Tubes (IOTs), or hybrids of those technologies. Grant applications also are sought to develop computer software for the design or modeling of any of these devices; such software should be able to faithfully model the complex shapes with full self-consistency. Software that integrates multiple effects, such as electromagnetic and wall heating is of particular interest. Grant applications also are sought for a microwave power device, klystron, IOT or tunable-phase stabilized magnetron, offering improved efficiency (>55-60%) while delivering up to 8 kW CW at 1497 MHz. The device must provide a high degree of backwards compatibility, both in size and voltage requirements, to allow its use as a replacement for the klystron (model VKL7811) presently used at Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, while providing significant energy savings.
c: Design and Operation of Radio Frequency Beam Acceleration Systems
Description: Grant applications are sought for the design, fabrication, and operation of radio frequency accelerating structures and systems for electrons, protons, and light- and heavy-ion particle accelerators. Areas of interest include (1) continuous wave (cw) structures, both superconducting and non-superconducting, for the acceleration of beams in the velocity regime between 0.001 and 0.03 times the velocity of light, and with charge-to-mass ratios between 1-6 and 1-240; (2) superconducting RF accelerating structures appropriate for rare isotope beam accelerator drivers, for particles with speeds in the range of 0.02-0.8 times the speed of light; (3) innovative techniques for field control of ion acceleration structures (1 or less of phase and 0.1% amplitude) and electron acceleration structures (0.1 of phase and 0.01% amplitude) in the presence of 10-100 Hz variations of the structures resonant frequencies (0.1-1.5 GHz); (4) multi-cell, superconducting, 0.5-1.5 GHz accelerating structures that have sufficient higher-order mode damping, for use in energy-recovering linac-based devices with ~1 A of electron beam; (5) methods for preserving beam quality by damping beam-break-up effects in the presence of otherwise unacceptably-large, higher-order cavity modes one example of which would be a very high bandwidth feedback system; (6) development of tunable superconducting RF cavities for acceleration and-or storage of relativistic heavy ions; and (7) development of rapidly tunable RF systems for applications such as non-scaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAG) and rapid cycling synchrotrons, either for providing high power proton beams or for proton therapy. RF cavities with high gain in voltage >30 kV and fast frequency switching are of interest for applications in fast acceleration of non-relativistic protons or ions with 0.1 < The goal is to create higher Q cavities where the frequency between two cavities can vary up to 25%. This will allow very fast acceleration to be applied for proton driven sub-critical Thorium nuclear reactors and for proton or carbon ion therapy. Grant applications also are sought to develop software for the design and modeling of the above systems. Desired modeling capabilities include (1) charged particle dynamics in complex shapes, including energy recovery analysis; (2) the incorporation of complex fine structures, such as higher order mode dampers; (3) the computation of particle- and field-induced heat loads on walls; (4) the incorporation of experimentally measured 3-D charge and bunch distributions; and (5) and the simulation of the electron cloud effect and its suppression A high-integrated-voltage SRF cw crab crossing cavity is also of interest. Therefore, grant applications are sought for (1) designs, computer-modeling, and hardware development for an SRF crab crossing cavity with 0.5 to 1.5 GHz frequency and 20 to 50 MV integrated voltage; and (2) beam dynamics simulations of an interaction region with crab crossing. One example of candidate technologies would be a multi-cell SRF deflecting cavity. Finally, grant applications also are sought to develop and demonstrate low level RF system control algorithms or control hardware that provide a robust and adaptive environment suitable for any accelerator RF system. Of special interest are approaches that address the particular challenges of superconducting RF systems, but room temperature systems are of interest as well.
d: Particle Beam Sources and Techniques
Description: Grant applications are sought to develop (1) particle beam ion sources and-or associated components with improved intensity, emittance, and range of species; (2) methods and-or devices for reducing the emittance of relativistic ion beams such as coherent electron cooling, and electron or optical-stochastic cooling; (3) methods and devices to increase the charge state of ion beams (e.g., by the use of special electron-cyclotron-resonance ionizers, electron-beam ionizers, or special stripping techniques); methods and -or devices for improving emission capabilities of photocathode sources, such as improving charge lifetime, bunch charge, average current, emittance, or energy spread. (5) techniques for in situ beam pipe surface coating to reduce the ohmic resistance and-or secondary electron yield; (6) high brightness electron beam sources utilizing continuous wave (cw) superconducting RF cavities with integral photocathodes operating at high acceleration gradients; (7) techniques and devices for measuring RF resistivity of cryogenically cooled coated tubes. Accelerator techniques for an energy recovery linac (ERL) and a circulator ring (CR) based electron cooling facility for cooling medium to high energy bunched proton or ion beams are of high interest for next generation colliders for nuclear physics experiments. Therefore, grant applications are sought for (1) design, modeling and proto-type development for a magnetized electron source-injector with a high bunch charge (up to 2 nC) and high average current (above 100 mA) and high bunch repetition rate (up to 75 MHz); (2) designs, modeling, and hardware and component development for a fast beam-switching kicker with 0.5 ns duration and 10 to 20 kW power in the range of 5-50 MHz repetition rate; and (3) optics designs and tracking simulations of beam systems for ERLs and CRs, with energy range from 5 to 130 MeV, and transporting and matching magnetized beams with superconducting solenoids in cooling channels. Examples of candidate technologies include photo- or thermionic-cathode electron guns with a DC or RF accelerating structure; SRF deflecting cavity, pulse compression techniques, and beam-based kicker. Grant applications also are sought to develop computer software for the design, modeling and simulating any of these devices and beam transport systems. A full utilization of the discovery potential of a next-generation electron-ion collider requires a full-acceptance detection system that can provide detection of reaction products scattered at small angles with respect to the incident beams over a wide momentum range. Grant applications are sought for design, modeling, and hardware development of the special magnets for such a detection system. Magnets of interest include (1) radiation-resistant superconducting ( 2 T pole-tip field) septum dipole with electronically adjustable field orientation (+-- 100 mrad); (2) radiation-resistant high-field ( 9 T pole-tip field), large-aperture ( 20 cm radius) quadrupole; (3) radiation-resistant superconducting ( 6 T pole-tip field) large-aperture ( 20 cm radius) small-yoke-thickness ( 14 cm OD-ID) quadrupole; (4) radiation-resistant super-conducting ( 6 T pole-tip field, ~3 cm IR) combined-function magnet with quadrupole and independently adjustable horizontal and vertical dipole field components Grant applications are sought to develop beam absorbers for energy-recovery linac driven medical isotope facilities. In such facilities an energy-recovering electron beam interacts with a thin high-Z target. After interaction with the thin target, the beam halo generated must be deposited in a controlled way and absorbed downstream of the target but before substantial bending for energy recovery. High efficiency in beam absorption leads to higher electron beam current and to higher possible overall production rates in the facility. Lastly, grant applications are sought to develop software that adds significantly to the state-of-the-art in the simulation of beam physics. Areas of interest include (1) electron cooling, (2) intra-beam and interbeam scattering, (3) spin dynamics, (4) polarized beam generation including modeling of cathode geometries for high current polarized electron sources, (5) generating and transporting polarized electron beam, (6) beam dynamics, transport and instabilities; and (7) electron or plasma discharge in vacuum under the influence of charged beams. The software should use modern best practices for software design, should run on multiple platforms, and should run in both serial and parallel configurations. Grant applications also are sought to develop graphical user interfaces for problem definition and setup.
e: Polarized Beam Sources and Polarimeters
Description: With respect to polarizing sources, grant applications are sought to develop (1) polarized hydrogen and deuterium (H--D-) 3He sources and-or associated components with polarization above 90%; (2) cw polarized electron sources and-or associated components delivering beams of ~10 mA, with longitudinal polarization greater than 80%; (3) ~28 MHz cw polarized sources delivering beams of ~500 mA, with polarization greater than 80%; and (4) devices, systems, and sub-systems for producing high current (>200A), variable-helicity beams of electrons with polarizations greater than 80%, and which have very small helicity-correlated changes in beam intensity, position, angle, and emittance. Grant applications also are sought to develop (1) methods to improve high voltage stand-off and reduce field emission from high voltage electrodes, compatible with ultra-high-vacuum environments; (2) wavelength-tunable (700 to 850 nm) mode-locked lasers, with pulse repetition rate between 0.5 and 3 GHz and average output power >10 W; (3) a high-average-power (~100 W), green laser light source, with a RF-pulse repetition rate in the range of 0.5 to 3 GHz, for synchronous photoinjection of GaAs photoemission guns; and (4) a cost-effective means to obtain and measure vacuum below 10-12 Torre. Grant applications also are sought for (1) advanced software and hardware to facilitate the manipulation and optimized control of the spin of polarized beams; (2) advanced beam diagnostic concepts, including new beam polarimeters and polarimeter targets and fast reversal of the spin of stored, polarized beams; (3) absolute polarimeters for spin polarized 3He beams with energies up to 160 GeV-nucleon (4) novel concepts for producing polarizing particles of interest to nuclear physics research, including electrons, positrons, protons, deuterons, and 3He; and (5) credible sophisticated computer software for tracking the spin of polarized particles in storage rings and colliders.
f: Charge Strippers for Heavy Ion Accelerators
Description: The following simulation studies are of interest: (1) simulation of the interaction of an intense heavy ion beam with the media used in charge strippers; (2) simulation of the effect of the heavy ion beam on a liquid lithium film used as a charge stripper; and (3) simulation of a He gas stripper with counter flows perpendicular to the heavy ion beam studying the heating effect and density variations effects on energy spread. Study of the film stability with high power density deposition is also of interest.
g: Rare Isotope Beam Production Technology
Description: Grant applications are sought to develop (1) ion sources for radioactive beams, (2) techniques for secondary radioactive beam collection, charge equilibration, and cooling; (3) technology for stopping energetic radioactive ions in helium gas and extracting them efficiently as high-quality low-energy ion beams; and (4) advanced parallel-computing simulation techniques for the optimization of both normal- and super-conducting accelerating structures for the future rare isotope facility. Grant applications also are sought to develop fast-release solid catcher materials. The stopping of high-energy (>MeV-u) heavy-ion reaction products in solid catchers is interesting for realizing high-intensity low-energy beams of certain elements and for the parasitic use of rare isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation. The development of suitable high-temperature materials to achieve fast release of the stopped rare isotopes as atomic or single-species molecular vapor is required. Grant applications also are sought to develop techniques for efficient rare isotope extraction from water. Water-filled beam dumps or reaction product catchers, considered in the context of high-power rare isotope beam production, could provide a source for the harvesting heavy-ion reaction products stopped in the water. Grant applications also are sought to develop techniques for the charge breeding of rare isotopes in Electron Beam Ion Sources or Traps (EBIS-T) prior to reacceleration. High breeding efficiencies in single charge states and short breeding times are required. In order to be able to optimize these values, simulation tools will be needed that realistically describe electron-ion interaction and ion cooling mechanisms and use accurate electric and magnetic field models. Also high performance electron guns with well-behaved beam compression into the magnetic field of the EBIS-T will be required. The electron guns will have to be optimized for high perveance and multi-Ampere electron current output in order to optimize ion capacity, ion beam acceptance, and breeding times. Grant applications are sought for development of radiation tolerant or radiation resistant multipole inserts in large-aperture superconducting quadrupoles used in fragment separators. Sextupole and octupole coils with multipole fields of up to 0.4 T are required to operate in a 2-T quadrupole field. Minimum cold mass and all-inorganic constructions are requirements that may be partially met with High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) coils or conventional superconductors with non-standard insulation. Grant applications are sought for development of radiation resistant thermal isolation systems for superconducting magnets. Support links connecting room temperature with the liquid helium structure have to support large magnetic forces, but at the same time have low thermal conductivities to limit heat input. Typically, all-metal links have ten to twenty times higher heat leaks than composite structures. Composites are, however, hundreds or thousands of times more sensitive to radiation damage than metals and so cannot be used in the high-radiation environment surrounding the production target or beam dump areas of high-power heavy ion accelerators. Given the high cost of cryogenic refrigeration, development of radiation resistant, high-performance support links is very desirable. Lastly, grant applications are sought to develop advanced and innovative approaches to the construction of large aperture superconducting and-or room temperature magnets and-or associated components, for use in fragment separators and magnetic spectrographs at rare isotope beam accelerator facilities. Grant applications also are sought for special designs that are applicable for use in high radiation areas. (Additional needs for high-radiation applications can be found in Topic 43 Nuclear Physics Detection Systems, Instrumentation and Techniques.)
h: Accelerator Control and Diagnostics
Description: Grant applications are sought to develop (1) advanced beam diagnostics concepts and devices that provide high speed computer-compatible measurement and monitoring of particle beam intensity, position, emittance, polarization, luminosity, momentum profile, time of arrival, and energy (including such advanced methods as neural networks or expert systems, and techniques that are nondestructive to the beams being monitored); (2) beam diagnostic devices that have increased sensitivities through the use of superconducting components (for example, filters based on high Tc superconducting technology or Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices); (3) measurement devices-systems for cw beam currents in the range 0.1 to 100 A, with very high precision (<10-4) and short integration times; (4) beam diagnostics for ion beams with intensities less than 107 nuclei-second; (5) non-destructive beam diagnostics for stored proton-ion beams, such as at the RHIC, and-or for 100 mA class electron beams; (6) devices-systems that measure the emittance of intense (>100kW) cw ion beams, such as those expected at a future rare isotope beam facility; (7) beam halo monitor systems for ion beams; and (8) instrumentation for electron cloud effect diagnostics and suppression. Grant applications are sought for the development of triggerable, high speed optical and-or IR cameras, with associated MByte-scale digital frame grabbers for investigating time dependent phenomena in accelerator beams. Image capture equipment needs to operate in a high-radiation environment and have a frame capture rate of up to 1 MHz. Imaging system needs to have memory capacity at the level of 1000 frames (10 GByte or higher total memory capacity). The cameras will be used for high-speed analysis of optical transition or optical diffraction radiation data. Grant applications are sought for developing point of delivery beam bunch length monitors for the Jefferson Lab CEBAF accelerator. Beam energies are from 6-12 GeV and bending magnetics are available to produce synchrotron radiation. Non-invasive monitoring is preferred. 500 MHz beam currents are typically above 5 uA and bunch lengths are typically below 30 microns rms. Grant applications also are sought for intelligent software and hardware to facilitate the improved control and optimization of charged particle accelerators and associated components for nuclear physics research. Areas of interest include the development of (1) generic solutions to problems with respect to the initial choice of operation parameters and the optimization of selected beam parameters with automatic tuning; (2) systems for predicting insipient failure of accelerator components, through the monitoring-cataloging-scanning of real-time or logged signals; and (3) devices that can perform direct 12-14 bit digitization of signals at 0.5-2 GHz and that have bandwidths of 100+ kHz.
i: Other
Description: In addition to the specific subtopics listed above, the Department invites grant applications in other areas that fall within the scope of the topic description above.