USA flag logo/image

An Official Website of the United States Government

Company Information:

Company Name:
Crystallume/edi
Address:
3506 Bassett Street
Santa Clara, CA 95054
Phone:
N/A
URL:
N/A
EIN:
N/A
DUNS:
N/A
Number of Employees:
10
Woman-Owned?:
No
Minority-Owned?:
No
HUBZone-Owned?:
No

Commercialization:

Has been acquired/merged with?:
N/A
Has had Spin-off?:
N/A
Has Had IPO?:
N/A
Year of IPO:
N/A
Has Patents?:
N/A
Number of Patents:
N/A
Total Sales to Date $:
$ 0.00
Total Investment to Date $
$ 0.00
POC Title:
N/A
POC Name:
N/A
POC Phone:
N/A
POC Email:
N/A
Narrative:
N/A

Award Totals:

Program/Phase Award Amount ($) Number of Awards
SBIR Phase I $2,379,498.00 40
SBIR Phase II $6,131,312.00 12

Award List:

PE-CVD DIAMOND THIN FILM FOR TUNABLE SOLID STATE LASER

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1987 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Dr j michael pinneo
Abstract:
The objective of this proposed research effort is to experimentally evaluate the optical properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond thin films with respect to electroluminescence in the uv and bluegreen spectral regions. as a result of such efforts we will determine the extend to which diamond… More

PE-CVD DIAMOND THIN FILM FOR RECYCLABLE UV SWITCH

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1987 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr J Michael Pinneo
Abstract:
N/a

PE-CVD DIAMOND THIN FILM FOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1987 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr J Michael Pinneo
Abstract:
N/a

PLASMA-ENHANCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITED DIAMOND THIN FILMS FOR TRIBOLOGICAL AND OPTICAL MATERIALS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1987 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Dr J Michael Pinneo
Abstract:
N/a

PLASMA-ENHANCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITED DIAMOND THIN FILMS FOR TRIBOLOGICAL AND OPTICAL MATERIALS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1988 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$490,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Dr J Michael Pinneo
Abstract:
A systematic means is being developed to reliably deposit optical-and/or tribological-quality diamond thin films on substrates relevant to strategic defense needs. to achieve this objective, the conditions of thin film diamond synthesis by electron-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposits… More

PE-CVD DIAMOND THIN FILM FOR RECYCLABLE UV SWITCH

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1988 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$499,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr J Michael Pinneo
Abstract:
The research addressed in this proposal involves an investigation into the use of diamond thin films as solid state optical switches where the films are produced by an inherently low-cost technique employing plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (pe-cvd) of carbon-containing gases (e.g.,… More

PE-CVD DIAMOND THIN FILM FOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1988 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$498,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr J Michael Pinneo
Abstract:
The objective of this proposed research effort is to experimentally evaluate the optoelectronic properties of chemical vapor deposition diamond thin films with respect to electroluminescence and photoconduction in the uv and blue-green spectral regions. as a result of such efforts we will determine… More

PE-CVD DIAMOND THIN FILMS FOR UV DETECTORS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1988 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
NASA
Principal Investigator:
Dr j michael pinneo
Abstract:
The research addressed in this proposal involves an investigation into the use of diamond thin films as high-performance uv detectors, where the films are produced by an inherently low-cost technique employing plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (pe-cvd) of carbon from carbon-containing gasses… More

CVD DIAMOND PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR ALPHA MEASURING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1988 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$55,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / DTRA
Principal Investigator:
Dr k v ravi
Abstract:
The objective of this research is to achieve greater sensitivity, ruggedness and ease of use of alpha measuring devices in potentially harsh field environments by applying thin film diamond to the instrument detector face. to achieve this objective we will attempt to coat silver activated zinc… More

CVD DIAMOND PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1988 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$54,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr k v ravi
Abstract:
The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of employing diamond film to improve the thermal conductivity of some commonly used electronic packaging materials and to relate film microstructure to thermal conductivity. to achieve this objective we will correlate the conditions of… More

OXIDATION RESISTANT DIAMOND COATINGS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE IHPTET APPLICATIONS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1988 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$63,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr K V Ravi
Abstract:
N/a

CVD DIAMOND COATINGS FOR FIBERS AND PARTICULATES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE COMPOSITES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1989 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$63,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / DARPA
Principal Investigator:
Dr K V Ravi
Abstract:
Among the emerging materials of interest, diamond films deposited by plasma enhanced cvd (pecvd) offers great promise as a fiber coating in fiber-matrix composites. diamond films possess unsurpassed physical properties including very high thermal conductivity, high electrical resistivity, extreme… More

DIAMOND-SILICON HETEROSTRUCTURE BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS USING POLYCRYSTALLINE CVD DIAMOND FILMS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1989 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$63,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr K V Ravi
Abstract:
In order to best use new generation cvd diamond films for advanced electronic applications, we propose combining diamond thin films with single crystal silicon to produce diamond-silicon heterostructure (dsh) bipolar transistors for increased performance. diamond-silicon heterostructure offer the… More

LOW FRICTION DIAMOND FILMS FOR HIGH PAYOFF CERAMIC BEARINGS APPLICATIONS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1989 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$52,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Dr K V Ravi
Abstract:
N/a

POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND JFETS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1989 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$63,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr K V Ravi
Abstract:
N/a

OXIDATION RESISTANT DIAMOND COATINGS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE IHPTET APPLICATIONS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$393,350.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr K V Ravi
Abstract:
Diamond thin films are expected to provide significant benefits for applications in difficult environments. however, an anticipated limitation on the use of diamond thin films in air is the onset of oxidation at temperatures in excess of approximately 550 deg c. the research contemplated would take… More

LOW FRICTION DIAMOND FILMS FOR HIGH PAYOFF CERAMIC BEARINGS APPLICATIONS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$500,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Dr K V Ravi
Abstract:
The ability to deposit high quality diamond films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (cvd) offers the opportunity to significantly enhance the tribological characteristics of materials. in this program, technologiesfor depositing diamond thin films with a variety of microstructural and… More

POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND JFETS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$506,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr K V Ravi
Abstract:
The objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of an all diamond junction field effect transistor (jfet). this device is constructed from large grain (5-10 microns), doped cvd diamond films and incorporates grain boundary passivation within the active channel region. current flow in… More

DIAMOND COMPOSITE CERAMICS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$63,984.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / DARPA
Principal Investigator:
Dr Michael Pinneo
Abstract:
Recent experimental evidence demonstrates feasibility of manufacturing new classes of ceramics and cermets consisting in whole or in part of diamond. it is likely that these materials will include ceramics and cermets reinforced with diamond fibers. these new composites are expected to exhibit an… More

DIAMOND WAVEGUIDES FOR THE LONG WAVELENGTH INFRARED

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$54,967.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart
Abstract:
It would be desirable to fabricate long wavelength infrared (lwir) optical waveguides as critical components to air-to-air missile target detection systems. no material is currently available which has the combination of strength, stability, and lwir transmission characteristics required by the… More

DIAMOND COATINGS FOR INFRARED MATERIAL

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$63,961.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart
Abstract:
Materials which are transparent in the infrared at 8-12um and currently used for high velocity missile radomes are subjected to abrasion and erosion in flight because of atmospheric particles and water droplets. in contrast, diamond film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (pecvd)… More

DIAMOND HEAT PUPES FOR EFFICIENT COOLING OF HIGH POWER DENSITY DEVICES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$63,827.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart
Abstract:
The overall objective of this research is to demonstrate that cvd diamond films can be incorporated into heat piper designs such that the resulting thermal impedance is significantly lower than that of the current technology. to achieve this, the existing heat pipe technology will be reviewed and… More

DIAMOND COATING AND MODERATOR FOR NUCLEAR FUEL PELLETS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$62,815.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart
Abstract:
N/a

NEW METHOD FOR FABRICATION OF DIAMOND-ARMORED IR OPTICAL ELEMENTS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$64,228.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / DARPA
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart
Abstract:
N/a

CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION DIAMOND COATINGS FOR IMPROVED THERMIONIC POWER SYSTEMS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$64,673.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart
Abstract:
N/a

DOPED DIAMOND QUANTUM WELLS FOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1990 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$59,838.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart
Abstract:
N/a

DETECTION OF IONIZING PARTICLES USING POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND FILMS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1991 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
DOE
Principal Investigator:
Maurice Landstrass , Principla Investigator
Abstract:
The use of diamond films for radiation-tolerant electronic applications has generated considerable interest. although other semiconductors can be made radiation-tolerant, diamondhas the highest inherent resistance to radiation-induced damage. this project is developing diamond ionizing radiation… More

A SINGLE CRYSTAL DIAMOND ULTRAVIOLET DETECTOR USE WITH A LIQUID XENON SCINTILLATOR

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1991 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
DOE
Principal Investigator:
Maurice Landstrass , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
The use of diamond films for radiation-tolerant electronic applications has generated considerable interest. while other semiconductors can be made radiation tolerant, diamondhas the highest inherent resistance to radiation-induced damage. a single crystal diamond ultraviolet (uv) detector for the… More

LOW-COST DIAMOND DECTECTOR MATERIALS FOR THE SUPERCONDUCTINGSUPER COLLIDER

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1991 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
DOE
Principal Investigator:
Linda Plano , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
There is growing interest in the high performance potential for diamond films as a detector material in the superconducting super collider (ssc). theoretical predictions and experimental data indicate great advantages to be achieved if diamond films can be employed. current diamond deposition costs… More

ALUMINUM/BERYLLIUM/DIAMOND COMPOSITES FOR AIRCRAFT POWER COMPONENTS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1991 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$68,687.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr J Michael Pinneo , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
The overall objective of this research is to determine the feasibility and performance of aluminum-matrix composites reinforced by diamond or diamond/ beryllium elements for aircraft power components. it is expected that selected samples will exhibit tensile strength, thermal coefficient of… More

AN INTEGRATED PROCESS FOR PRODUCING COMMERCIAL DIAMOND X-RAY LITHOGRAPHY MASKS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1991 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$64,032.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / DARPA
Principal Investigator:
William Phillips , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
Cvd diamond membranes which are transparent to visible light are now being routinely produced at crystallume for use in x-ray lithography. the program described in this proposal will go beyond general materials development goals and will utilize mechanical modeling to determine the specific… More

DOPED DIAMOND QUANTUM WELLS FOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1991 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$59,838.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
N/a

DOPED DIAMOND QUANTUM WELLS FOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$496,876.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart
Abstract:
In order to bet use new generation cvd diamond films for advanced electronic applications, we propose extending the present technology for the purpose of growing single crystal diamond doping superlattices. diamond transistors offer the posibility of high speed and high density circuits which are of… More

FIBER-REINFORCED DIAMOND CERAMIC COMPOSITES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$49,800.00
Agency:
NSF
Principal Investigator:
Dr. Michael Drory
Abstract:
The feasibility of diamond ceramics has been demonstrated at crystallume by consolidating diamond powder to near full density producing disks of several millimeters thickness. diamond matrix composites have also been fabricated by incorporating sic particles in the powder compact prior to… More

THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH DIAMOND COMPOSITE CERAMICS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$66,881.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Dr. M.d. Drory
Abstract:
The evolution of electronics systems to smaller, higher density packages places enormous demands on heat removal capability. a large increase in the thermal conductivity of packaging materials would enable multiple solutions to thermal management of these advanced electronics packages. crystallume's… More

RADIATION HARD DIAMOND TRANSISTORS FOR THE SUPERCONDUCTING SUPER COLLIDER

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
DOE
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
Diamond has long been considered an ideal semiconductor material for a number of high performance microelectronic applications. although other semiconductors can be made radiation tolerant to a certain degree, diamond has the highest inherent resistance to radiation-induced damage. consequently,… More

Diamond Ultra-Violet Imaging Sensors

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$70,076.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Maurice Landstrass
Abstract:
Diamond Ultra-Violet Imaging Sensors take advantage of diamond's unique combination of high carrier mobility and high radiation tolerance. Diamond is extremely radiation tolerant and has excellent electronic transport properties. DUVS will extend the state-of-the-art of ultra-violet detectors in the… More

CVD DIAMOND COATINGS FOR A TAILORED WORK FUNCTION COLD CATHODE

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$64,499.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Maurice Landstrass
Abstract:
N/a

DIAMOND CAPACITORS FOR AIRCRAFT POWER

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$63,100.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Maurice Landstrass
Abstract:
N/a

DOPED DIAMOND QUANTUM WELLS FOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1993 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$582,442.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Wilson Smart , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
In order to bet use new generation cvd diamond films for advanced electronic applications, we propose extending the present technology for the purpose of growing single crystal diamond doping superlattices. diamond transistors offer the posibility of high speed and high density circuits which are of… More

CVD DIAMOND COATINGS FOR A TAILORED WORK FUNCTION COLD CATHODE

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1993 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$700,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Maurice Landstrass
Abstract:
Because of their unique electronic properties, diamond thin films offer an opportunity to greatly improve the efficiency of microwave power tube systems by using a high efficiency cold cathode employing diamond negative electron affinity coatings to achieve low work function and low emitter… More

DIAMOND CAPACITORS FOR AIRCRAFT POWER

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1993 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$568,475.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
Maurice Landstrass
Abstract:
The unique ruggedness of diamond thin films offer an opportunity to greatly improve the reliability of power conditioning capacitors using highly radiation tolerant insulators fabricated from cvd diamond. diamond coatings high compatibility with refractory metals and excellent properties at elevated… More

CVD Diamond Doped with Transition Metals and Rare Earths for Persistent Spectral Hole Burning Memory Applications

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1993 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$69,909.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
William Phillips
Abstract:
The advent of broadly tunable laser sources raises the possibility of using the phenomenon of spectral hole burning of inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines to implement optical information storage via wavelength addressed holographic recording and readout. CVD diamond suggests itself as a… More

HIGH TOUGHNESS DIAMOND COMPOSITES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1993 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$49,986.00
Agency:
NSF
Principal Investigator:
Michael Drory
Abstract:
The feasibility of diamond ceramics has been demonstrated by consolidating diamond powder with cvd diamond to near full density producing disks of several millimeter thickness. researchers are developing a high toughness diamond matrix composite. samples in which cubic boron nitride powder is… More

Diamond-Coated Fibers for Polymers Matrix Composites

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1993 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$70,281.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
M D Drory
Abstract:
N/a

Diamond-Coated Fibers for Polymers Matrix Composites

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$150,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
M D Drory
Abstract:
The feasibility of diamond-coated fibers for polymer matrix composites will be explored. The poor thermal conductivity of polymers restricts the use of these materials as structural components under thermal loading. This problem will be addressed in collaboration with General Dynamics by… More

DIAMOND HETEROEPITAXY USING NANOMETRIC SURFACE PREPARATION

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$58,676.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Mary Anne Plano
Abstract:
One of the drawbacks of using single crystal diamond is the small size and expense of using natural diamond substrates. Single crystal natural diamonds are readily available in sizes up to 5 mm x 5 mm. For larger sizes the costs are prohibitive. These sizes are inconvenient to work with in terms of… More

Silicon-on Diamond Technology for Radiation Hardened Electronics

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$57,581.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / DTRA
Principal Investigator:
Mary Anne Plano
Abstract:
The objective of this program is to develop a silicon-on-insulator technology (SOI) using CVD diamond films as insulators. Such structures should permit the fabrication of integrated circuits with performance capabilities superior to those fabricated using conventional SOI structures including… More

DIAMOND-COATING OF METAL ALLOYS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$64,952.00
Agency:
NSF
Principal Investigator:
M D Drory
Abstract:
A novel interlayer is proposed to allow higher quality diamond coatings to be deposited on steel substrates than has previously been achieved. steel alloys have presented particular difficulty for the deposition of high quality diamond because of chemical incompatibility and a large difference in… More

Large Area Diamond Deposition Using Scanned Plasma Technology

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$79,907.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
William Phillips
Abstract:
N/a

Large Area Diamond Deposition Using Scanned Plasma Technology

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1995 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$747,169.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / USAF
Principal Investigator:
William Phillips
Abstract:
Diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have become an important engineering material. Microwave plasma (MP) CVD ofdiamond is particularly advantageous because it leads to material with the highest quality in terms of impurity content, electronic and optical… More

CVD Diamond for SAW Devices

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1997 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$60,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / MDA
Principal Investigator:
Michael Drory
Abstract:
CVD diamond will be explored for high frequency bandpass filters in Phase I by producing an ultra-smooth diamond coating over an 8in. diamond silicon wafer. Current materials limit the frequency response of SAW devices requiring the use of a substrate with higher sonic velocity. Diamond has the… More