Improving health benefits of wheat by increasing resistant starch
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The conditions of diabetes and obesity are a growing public health concern affecting more of the population every year. A large segment of the population is pre-diabetic potentially progressing towards diabetes. Food choices impact all of these health problems. The overall goal of this proposal is to increase resistant starch levels in wheat, a principle part of our diet. Resistant starch has many beneficial health properties. It is the portion of starch that escapes digestion in the lower intestine and is instead fermented in the large intestine. Because of this, resistant starch does not cause a rapid rise in glucose after a meal; instead glucose is released more slowly into the bloodstream and leads to an increased feeling of satiety. Fermentation of resistant starch in the lower intestine also leads to short chain fatty acid production that helps promote colon health. We propose to develop novel wheat cultivars with very high levels of resistant starch. By increasinglevels of amylose, one of the components of starch, resistant starch levels increase. Resistant starch is also correlated with levels of total dietary fiber because it is slowly digested; so increased amylose increases fiber content as well. In preliminarywork, we developed a wheat line with moderate amylose levels due to the alteration of an enzyme in the starch biosynthetic pathway using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes). TILLING is a novel non-GM (genetic modification) technique thatis a target-selected variation of mutation breeding. In order to develop very high amylose wheat for a product that can be commercialized, we propose to combine mutations in linked starch biosynthetic genes. The feasibility of obtaining the necessary linked mutations will be demonstrated during Phase I. This project has a high likelihood of success given the size and mutation frequency of our wheat TILLING library. The rest of the necessary mutations will be discovered during Phase II and combined through breeding to produce the very high amylose variety. We have applied for the Fast Track SBIR based on the strength of our preliminary data and the high likelihood of commercialization due to the many more foods than currently available sources of resistant starch whose use is limited. Because level of interest from the industry in this product. High resistant starch wheat can be incorporated into wheat is pervasive in our diets, this product could have a major positive impact on health. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The conditions of diabetes and obesity are a growing public health concern affecting more of the population every year. Food choices impact these health problems, and foods high in resistant starch have beneficial effects that help combat these conditions. The overall goal of this proposal is to develop novel wheat cultivars with very high levels of resistant starch that would positively impact health. )
Small Business Information at Submission:
ARCADIA BIOSCIENCES, INC.
4222 E. THOMAS ROAD PHOENIX, AZ 85018-7609
Number of Employees: