Novel Electrochemical Couples for High Energy and Power Density
ABSTRACT: For this SBIR Proposal, NOHMs Technology will design a safe, non-flammable, dendrite-suppressing electrolyte from a family of unique class of self-suspended hybrid nanoparticles for use in Li-S batteries. The three electrolytes to be explored are: (1) NOHMs Electrolyte, (2) NOHMs Cross-linked Electrolyte, (3) and Ionic-liquid Hybrid Electrolyte. These electrolyte compounds exhibit strong mechanical properties which frustrate lithium dendrite formation, are non-flammable / volatile, and 7x higher lithium transference than pure ionic-liquid electrolytes. The proposed electrochemical coupling of Li-S increases theoretical storage capacity from 0.6 kW/kg (for li-ion) to 2.3 kW/kg (for li-sulfur), yielding a dramatic 3-4x weight, size, and cost reduction for batteries in mobile devices, EVs, and utilities power storage. However, a commercially viable Li-S cell is yet to be realized. The technology has so far been hindered by poor electrical conductivity of sulfur and shuttling of higher-order polysulfides during charging (which seriously degrades performance). However, NOHMs proprietary nanostructured cathode material prevents higher order polysulfide shuttling between electrodes and facilitates electron migration within the highly conductive carbon. This novel proprietary method dramatically lengthens cycle life of lithium-sulfur batteries. These Li-S batteries offer longer cycling life, higher energy storage capacity, greater power density, and lower direct and life-cycle costs. BENEFIT: This technology could benefit the military by enabling small- to micro-autonomous UAV systems, armored vehicles and portable power systems. This technology could benefit the commercial sector by improving automotive and/or public transit systems.
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