USA flag logo/image

An Official Website of the United States Government

DoD 2013.A STTR Solicitation

Agency: Department of Defense
Branch: Navy
Program/Year: STTR / 2013
Solicitation Number: 2013.A
Release Date: January 25, 2013
Open Date: February 25, 2013
Close Date: March 27, 2013
N13A-T001: Naval Platform Aero-Optic Turbulence and Mitigation Methodology
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop modeling and simulation capability to resolve negative effects of air flow pattern of naval aviation platforms such as the rotary and fixed winged aircraft. DESCRIPTION: Past efforts in platform aero-optic effects have emphasized the development of tool sets via Modeling and Simulation (M & S) to visualize the problem, but mitigation of the negative effects has not been at the forefront of follow-on efforts. Comparing experimental data to simulations is very important to understanding the problem and will be essential to develop mitigation techniques. This topic is to address anticipated negative aero-optic effects on beam stability caused by main rotor downwash by developing modeling and simulation capability using techniques such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to resolve the air flow pattern of naval aviation platforms such as rotary and fixed winged aircraft. This will include the aero-optical, aero-mechanical and atmospheric effects, and may include the modeling of adaptive-optic and beam-control systems, as well as the integrated effect of the platform fuselage, rotor wash and engine exhaust. The developed capability must be in sufficient resolution to predict the aero-optical effects to an aviation- based high energy laser (HEL) system. This STTR will primarily focus on developing mitigation techniques required to support airborne HEL weapon systems on a variety of Naval aviation platforms. The performer is expected to address the following types of topics: 1) Integrated opto-mechanical design, incorporating an acquisition and tracking system and HEL laser. 2) Innovative adaptive optics or other phase control system for aero-optics and atmospheric aberration compensation. 3) Passive phase retrieval techniques for aberration determination, such as phase diversity. 4) Control of laser beam under platform jitter. After development of techniques to predict/measure these aero-optic effects, the second area of research will be in the development of mitigation techniques to provide the maximum turbulence compensation for the various rotary and fixed winged aviation platforms of interest. The near-term objective will support an ongoing Future Naval Capability program involving the integration of a High Power Laser onto a rotary wing aircraft. PHASE I: Develop aero-optical distortion methodology to predict performance characteristics of the HEL system as a function of atmospheric turbulence, platform downwash/exhaust, and platform vibration. Define system architecture, identify system hardware and functionality. PHASE II: Develop and test mitigation aero-optical distortion methodologies. Perform aero-optical distortion measurements in a wind tunnel on a model system. Integrate passive optical aberration metrology and a compensation system and demonstrate in wind tunnel environment. PHASE III: Develop hardware to demonstrate beam control system functionality and performance (aero-optic mitigation). Examine scaling issues related to these methods. Use methodology developed to reduce the negative aero optic effects on the HEL beam on naval aviation platforms. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Commercial aircraft contain an increasing number of instruments and communications equipment located in pods/blisters on the surface of the aircraft. Aero-optic effects from these pods could lead to equipment performance issues and degraded aerodynamics of the aircraft. The results of this topic could lead to mitigation strategies to improve performance and aircraft efficiency. REFERENCES: 1. Thompson, W.E., & McManamon, P.F. (Eds.). (2012). Acquisition, tracking, pointing, and laser system technologies XXVI. Proceedings of SPIE, 8395. Retrieved from http://spie.org/x648.html?product_id=903342 & origin_id=x648 2. Gilbert, K., & Otten, L. (Eds.). (1982). Aero-optical phenomena. Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 80. New York: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc, doi:10.2514/4.9781600863356

N13A-T002: Modeling of Integrally Bladed Rotor (IBR) Blends
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate an analytical means to predict the effect of large airfoil blends on integrally bladed rotors. DESCRIPTION: Integrally bladed rotors (IBRs) are prevalent in the fan and compressor sections of the current and emerging fleet of Department of Defense (DoD) gas turbine engines such as the F119 and F135. While IBRs have inherent weight and performance benefits, they can require more man hours to repair and therefore become more costly than rotors with removable blades. When there is damage to a rotor with removable blades, the blades can simply be replaced for damage exceeding allowable blend limits. IBRs are more difficult to repair because the entire rotor must be removed from wing, blended, tuned and balanced through independent means. The ability to cost effectively and quickly repair IBRs is required to reduce acquisition life-cycle costs of the propulsion system. Currently, foreign object damage (FOD) location and size can be measured using a boroscope through inspection ports, which mitigates the need to remove the IBR from wing. Blending, currently the only method to repair IBRs, uses specialized tooling to remove adjacent material from the damaged location to alleviate critical stress. However, blending changes the following: modal characteristics of the blade, tuning of the IBR and (if not balanced) may induce vibration to the IBR. While blends alter IBR mechanics, there can also be aerodynamic effects that adversely affect engine performance (e.g. compressor efficiency) and operability (e.g. stall). Tools currently exist to calculate each of these aspects individually, but no method exists for quickly and easily analyzing the effect of each blend and all blends as a whole. There is a need for a method to predict a blend"s effect on these mechanical and aerodynamic characteristics in a single comprehensive tool. The development of a tool capable of conducting modal analysis of 3D airfoil shapes, with and without a variety of blend shapes, would make it possible to analyze the repair potential to highly damaged IBRs. The tool must be able to model different"types"of blends with varying aspect ratios. Specifically, the need is to quickly and iteratively minimize stress concentration ratios at the damaged location as well as percent resonant frequency shifts for different sized blends and blend shapes across multiple mode shapes. The effect these blends have on rotor balance, tuning/mistuning, performance and operability also needs to be modeled. This modeling would allow the analysis necessary to determine the optimum blending to repair the IBR, without removing it from wing. It will also provide the ability to predict the effect of multiple, larger, and more aggressive IBR airfoil blends on modal characteristics, engine performance and operability. The new tool should leverage commercially available computer aided design and finite element analytical models and processes where available. The development of automated design procedures to build the required analytical models and execute the required process is necessary. The product should be an analytical tool to model the effect of blends and not a method to perform large blends on an IBR. PHASE I: Develop a candidate means to assess the impact on airfoil structural dynamics from large airfoil blends. Demonstrate proof of concept of automated analytical modeling of as-measured or as-expected airfoil blends. PHASE II: Develop and validate a prototype integrated design and analysis tool for assessing large damage and blends for compressor integrally bladed rotors on gas turbine engines. PHASE III: Fully develop a tool to assess large blends on IBR airfoils for modal characteristics, performance and operability assessments including the application of graphical user interfaces where appropriate. Tools and processes of these efforts can (and are expected to) interface with OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) tools and processes as well as COTS tool providers such as ANSYS or Siemens. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Emerging commercial fleets have also committed to the use of integrally bladed rotors in their compression systems. The analytical methodology developed under this proposed activity is directly applicable to commercial turbine engines. REFERENCES: 1. Bladh, R., Castanier, M.P., & Pierre, C. (1999). Reduced order modeling and vibration analysis of mistuned bladed disk assemblies with shrouds. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 121(3), 515-522. doi:10.1115/1.2818503 2. Castanier, M.P., ttarsson, G., & Pierre, C. (1997). A reduced order modeling technique for mistuned bladed disks. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, 119(3), 439-447. doi:10.1115/1.2889743 3. Hong, S., Epureanu, B.I., Castanier, M.P., & Gorsich, D.J. (2011). Parametric reduced-order models for predicting the vibration response of complex structure with component damage and uncertainties. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 330(6), 1091-1110. doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2010.09.022 4. Kruse, M., & Pierre, C. (1996). Dynamic response of an industrial turbomachinery rotor. 32nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE, Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 2820, 1-15. doi:10.2514/6.1996-2820 5. Kruse, M., & Pierre, C. (1996). Forced response of mistuned bladed disks using reduced-order modeling. 37th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference and Exhibit, 1545, 1938-1950. doi:10.2514/6.1996-1545

N13A-T003: Maneuver Prediction and Avoidance Logic For Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Encounters with Non-Cooperative Air Traffic
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop an analytic framework and methodology to address unanticipated maneuver encounter modeling, collision risk estimation and ownship maneuver logic to support optimal operation of manned and unmanned aircraft in a complex and congested airspace. DESCRIPTION: With the widespread introduction of unmanned aircraft, the nature of the airspace will change significantly over the next 10-20 years as they are fully integrated into both segregated and non-segregated airspace. New procedures and technologies will be required to ensure safe airspace operations while accommodating increasing traffic demands. Current top level design requirements for sensor systems supporting collision avoidance assume stressing straight-line intruder collision trajectories to establish hardware requirements as a function of maneuver decision latency and own-ship maneuverability. This is a very reasonable approach to establish the system design. In practice the current state of the art maneuver logic must be improved to consider unanticipated maneuvers by an intruder occurring after the own-ship collision avoidance maneuver initiation. Such a situation exists when encountering non-cooperative, maneuvering intruders, such as those operating under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). These encounters are particularly challenging due to the inherent uncertainties in predicting the future trajectories of these intruders. Understanding the nature of unanticipated maneuvers and their likelihood during encounters in representative actual airspace types is essential for the development of the collision avoidance logic. Investigators have suggested [1] that one way of meeting this challenge is to treat"well clear"as a separation standard that is quantified using the risk (i.e. probability) of Near Mid-Air Collision (NMAC) at some future time, and to alert pilots when action is required to avoid violating this separation. A maneuver decision approach which matches suitable encounter models with sensor, air vehicle and level of decision autonomy is needed. This likely involves (explicitly or implicitly) a stochastic model to quantify likely intruder trajectories. A number of candidate approaches exist for computing such risks including the use of continuous-time, maneuver-based stochastic models and diffusion-based methods. A key element in such an approach is the ability to capture variations in maneuvering aircraft trajectories over representative encounter time scales, that it be viable for a real-time collision avoidance and provide a quantifiable performance improvement in terms of the traditional detection-theoretic metrics of probability of detection (Pd) and probability of false alarm (Pfa). Such an approach could then be utilized in the assessment of the overall system level of safety and support administrative certification. PHASE I: Develop the overall analytic framework and methodology for collision avoidance maneuver logic in the presence of unanticipated intruder maneuvers occurring after the ownship (UAS) collision avoidance maneuver initiation . Identify the key elements in a maneuver decision approach which matches suitable encounter models with sensor capabilities, air vehicle dynamics and level of decision autonomy. PHASE II: Develop a maneuver decision approach to account for unanticipated maneuvers as a function of class of airspace and varying levels of knowledge about the type of intruder aircraft. Demonstrate the approach on representative encounter scenarios. Develop models to validate the approach relative to the risk metrics. PHASE III: Transition the approach and supporting algorithms into general use for airborne collision avoidance systems in service or under development. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The research directly supports civil integration of UAS into the NAS. Commercial market for UAS including police departments is a huge private sector growth area. REFERENCES: 1. Kochenderfer, M.J., Edwards, M.W.M, Espindle, L.P., Kuchar, J.K., & Griffith, J.D. (2010). Airspace encounter models for estimating collision risk. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 33(2), 487-499. doi:10.2514/1.44867 2. M. Kochenderfer, L. Espindle, J. Kuchar, and J. Griffith,"A Comprehensive Aircraft Encounter Model of the National Airspace System,"Lincoln Laboratory Journal, Volume 17, Number 2, 2008 3. Weibel, R.E., Edwards, M.W.M., Fernandes, C.S. (2011). Establishing a risk-based separation standard for unmanned aircraft self separation. Ninth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research & Development Seminar, 1-7. Retrieved from http://www.atmseminar.org/seminarContent/seminar9/papers/64-Weibel-Final...

N13A-T005: Ultra-Wideband, Low-Power Compound Semiconductor Electro-optic Modulator
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a compound semiconductor external electro-optic modulator for ultra-wideband RF/analog signal transmission on aircraft DESCRIPTION: New military communications, sensing and surveillance systems require ever-faster real time acquisition and transmission of electronic signals to achieve continuous sensing of electromagnetic spectrum. For the development and utilization of such systems ultra-wide bandwidths, low power operation, immunity to interference and survival under high input signals are essential. Transmission of ultra-wide band digital data over fiber optic transmission lines is another essential application for next generation military communications and data centers. Such links provide immunity to interference and can survive large input signals and operate at moderate power levels. As wider and wider portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are accessed and utilized, wider operational bandwidths are needed. In these regards electro-optic modulators that require drive voltage less than 1 volt (V), broadband operation in excess of 40 gigahertz (GHz), loss<5 decibels (dB) and able to operate at optical powers up to 100 megawatt (mW) are essential. Furthermore the impedance of the modulator electrode should be as close to 50 ohms as possible which eliminates impedance matching issues and reduces the return loss. It is also highly desirable for such modulator designs to be scaled up to wider bandwidths approaching 100 GHz, possibly at the expense of drive voltage. At present, there is not an existing technology that can deliver such a modulator. Presently the most commonly used electro-optic modulator material system is lithium niobate (LiNbO3). This is a mature technology and can provide the required bandwidth using traveling wave designs. However velocity matching requires electrical signal to go faster than the optical signal. Furthermore electrode length is restricted due to precise velocity matching needed. These requirements make the drive voltage rather high, at 5 V or higher level, even for advanced designs using micro machining techniques. Polymers offer better velocity matching but drive voltages are also higher. External electro-optic modulators provide distinct advantages. Such devices are also key components for fiber optic links, delay lines, transmitters and signal processing. For example broadband analog links with gain is possible using low drive voltage modulators that can transmit moderate optical powers. Compound semiconductor electro-optic modulators have lower electro-optic coefficients compared to LiNbO3 and polymers but have high refractive indices that show very little dispersion from microwave to optical frequencies. High refractive index improves electro-optic efficiency and low index dispersion allows traveling wave devices using the loaded line approach. Electro-optic efficiency can be increased further using multi quantum well cores. Modulators in such materials also benefit from advanced device processing techniques. Such techniques allow the fabrication of highly confined electro-optically active optical waveguides and nanowires. A tightly confined optical mode overlapping very well with externally applied electric fields can create very efficient electro-optic modulation enabling very low drive voltages. Compound semiconductors can enable development of electro-optic modulators with very low drive voltage and ultra-wide bandwidth operation. Major challenges include uncooled operation over -40 to +80 degrees Celcius (minimum), low thermal noise, compatibility with moderate power (100mW), low relative intensity noise laser diode sources, and compact packaging with bend insensitive single-mode fiber coupling. PHASE I: Design an ultra-wideband semiconductor electro-optic modulator that provides very efficient electro-optic modulation. Establish proof of concept. Develop a modulator fabrication process and a modulator test plan. PHASE II: Optimize electrical and optical design and fabricate low voltage high speed packaged modulator prototype. Demonstrate modulator electrical and optical performance for high speed and high frequency range operation. Demonstrate single-mode fiber pigtailed electro-optic modulator packaging. PHASE III: Transition the demonstrated modulator technology to radar systems, electronic warfare systems, and communication systems on Naval Aviation Platforms. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The technology would find application in commercial systems such as fiber-optic networks and telecommunications, where photonic integration offers compelling advantages over board-level processing. REFERENCES: 1. Chen, D., Fetterman, H.R., Chen, A., Steier, W.H., Dalton, L.R., Wang, W., & Shi, Y. (1997). Demonstrations of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators. Applied Physics Letters, 70(25), 3335-3337. doi:10.1063/1.119162 2. Nishimura, S., Inoue, H., Sano, H., & Ishida, K. (1992). Electrooptic effects in an InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum well structure. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 4(10), 1123-1126. doi:10.1109/68.163753 3. Noguchi, K., Mitomi, O., & Miyazawa, H. (1998). Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 16(4), 615-619. doi:10.1109/50.664072 4. Shi, Y. (2006). Micromachined wide-band lithium-niobate electrooptic modulators. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 54(2), 810-815. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2005.863063 5. Shin, J., Chang, Y., & Dagli, N. (2008). 0.3 V drive voltage GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators. Applied Physics Letters, 92(20), 201103-201105. doi:10.1063/1.2931057 6. Shin, J., Ozturk, C., Sakamoto, S.R., Chiu, Y.J., & Dagli, N. (2005). Novel T-rail electrodes for substrate removed low-voltage high-speed GaAs/AlGaAs electrooptic modulators. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 53(2), 636-643. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.840735 7. Shin, J., Wu, S., & Dagli, N. (2007). 35-GHz bandwidth, 5-V-cm drive voltage, bulk GaAs substrate removed electrooptic modulators. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 19(18), 1362-1364. doi:10.1109/LPT.2007.902923 8. Teng, C.C. (1992). Traveling-wave polymeric optical intensity modulator with more than 40 GHz of 3-dB electrical bandwidth. Applied Physics Letters, 60(13), 1538-1540. doi:10.1063/1.107482

N13A-T006: Low-Cost-By-Design Mid-Wave Infrared Semiconductor Surface Emitting Lasers
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop high-power, surface-emitting semiconductor lasers or beam-combined surface-emitting laser arrays emitting at ~4.5 um range. DESCRIPTION: Monolithic surface-emitting (SE) semiconductor lasers hold promise for significant advantages over edge-emitting lasers in terms of both reliable operation and manufacturing cost. Device-failure modes of edge-emitting lasers that are triggered by high facet optical-power densities and/or temperatures, which, in turn, generally limit the reliable output power of edge-emitting lasers, are thus eliminated. Due to these advantages of the surface emitting designs, near-infrared vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) has been very successfully commercialized and VCSELs have been ultra low-cost sources in the market. The substantial cost reduction of the surface emitting laser diodes is primarily achieved via the elimination of a few high-cost, low-yield, labor intensive fabrication and packaging steps such as wafer lapping, cleaving, dicing, facet-coatings, and chip bonding, etc., which amount to 60 to 75% of the total cost of manufacturing the edge-emitting laser diodes. Using the similar design and manufacturing paradigm in the near-infrared surface emitting laser diodes, one can envision that SE mid-wave infrared (MWIR) lasers or beam-combined laser arrays can significantly improve the affordability of these semiconductor lasers because of the ability to perform full wafer-scale device array fabricating and testing, without the need to separate and package the individual chips prior to testing. Extension of the VCSEL technology to the mid-infrared region by employing interband-transition laser structures has proven challenging due to its unique emission polarization caused by the intersubband transitions that is not compatible with VCSEL"s distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). As an alternate technology path to VCSEL based on DBRs, grating-coupled (GC) surface emitters have been demonstrated with single-spatial-mode, single-frequency continuous wave (CW) operation, with the added advantage that higher single-mode CW output powers can potentially be achieved. In particular, SE laser with distributed feedback (DFB) out-coupling gratings that enables both stable-beam as well as frequency-stabilized operation has been demonstrated with output power as high as 73 Watt (W) in the near-infrared regime (<1 m). However, MWIR GC-SE-DFB lasers employing intersubband transitions and emitting through the substrate have been demonstrated as well, but with emission wavelengths longer than 5.0 m and also without spatial-mode stabilization. Last but not the least, GC surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has also been demonstrated with reasonably high output power but with an asymmetric and non-Gaussian circular far-field beam pattern. It is therefore the goal of this program to seek an innovative low-cost-by-design, power-scalable, chip-based platform solution that enables high-power surface emission from a single aperture with outstanding beam quality from either a single SE QCL or monolithic coherently or spectrally beam-combined SE QCL array at ~ 4.5 m range. The device development in this program should enable innovative wafer-level fabrication and testing for the mid-infrared semiconductor lasers to substantially reduce the cost of manufacturing and hence the affordability of the lasers. PHASE I: Develop a design for a single SE QCL or monolithic beam-combined SE QCL array in the 4.5 m wavelength region. The device should be capable of emitting an output power of over 15 W CW through a single aperture and with an outstanding output beam quality (M2<1.2). PHASE II: Fabricate and demonstrate a prototype single SE QCL or monolithic beam-combined QCL array with output emission out of a single aperture with output power>15 W CW and with outstanding beam quality (M2<1.2) operating in the 4.5 m wavelength region. Demonstrate a path forward to power-scale the SE QCL or SE QCL array monolithically at the wafer level without external optics to power levels exceeding 100 W CW while maintaining M2<1.2. PHASE III: Develop low cost manufacturing process and transition the high-power QCL or beam-combined QCL array for DoD application in the areas of DIRCM, advanced chemical sensors, and LIDAR. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The commercial sector can significantly benefit from this technology development in the areas of detection of toxic industrial gases, environmental monitoring, and non-invasive medical health monitoring and sensing. REFERENCES: 1. Arafin, S., Bachmann, A., & Aman, M.C. (2011). Transverse-mode characteristics of GaSb-based VCSELs with buried-tunnel junctions. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 17(6), 1576-1583. doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2011.2107571 2. Bai, Y., Tsao, S., Bandyopadhyay, N., Slivken, S., Lu, Q.Y., Caffey, D., Pushkarsky, M., Day, T., & Razeghi, M. (2011). High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser. Applied Physics Letters, 99(26), 261104. doi:10.1063/1.3672049 3. Lyakh, A., Zory, P., D"Souza, M., Botez, D., & Bour, D. (2007). Substrate-emitting, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers. Applied Physics Letters, 91(18). doi:10.1063/1.2803851 4. Kanskar, M., Cai, J., Kedlaya, D., Olson, D., Xiao, Y., Klos, T., Martin, M., Galstad, C., & Macomber, S.H. (2010). High-brightness surface-emitting distributed feedback laser and arrays. Proceedings of SPIE, Laser Technology for Defense and Security VI, 7686. doi:10.1117/12.853037

N13A-T007: Multi-scale Peridynamics Theory for Corrosion Fatigue Damage Prediction
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative techniques using peridynamics theory to predict corrosion fatigue across length and time scales in Naval aircraft. DESCRIPTION: Corrosion damage remains a major challenge in aging Navy aircraft fleet with implications for both the safety and economic operation of components and structures. Of particular interest is corrosion fatigue, which can severely limit material lifetime and performance. Corrosion fatigue is the degradation of a material due to interaction of corrosion and mechanical stress due to cyclic loading. The crack propagation is driven by stress and electrochemistry, as the applied stress may open up cracks that allow easier diffusion of corrosion products away from the crack tip, allowing crack tip to corrode faster. Additionally, hydrogen tends to be attracted to regions of high tensile stress in metal structures, such as the region around a crack tip. This leads to embrittlement of the metal, making fracture easier. As a significant factor in cost, airworthiness of the aircraft and fleet availability, a pro-active approach in design of new aircraft as well as sustainment of legacy fleet to address the corrosion damage is of great importance. The difficulties in accurate prediction of corrosion damage point to the fact that corrosion fatigue is inherently a multi-scale process in both length and time. Although qualitative effects from three basic sources of corrosion, i.e., design, environment, and maintenance, are well understood, prediction of corrosion fatigue damage in service has been a quite a challenge despite several decades of research in corrosion. This is because of the inherent time and loading frequency dependence of crack initiation and propagation and the dependence of damage developed within a wide range of interacting mechanical, material, and environmental variables. Computational modeling of corrosion fatigue must bridge damage phenomenon occurring across length and time scales, capturing the interactions between cyclic loading and electrochemistry. To capture microscale corrosion electrochemistry, various modeling and simulation techniques exist such as continuum mass transport, kinetic Monte-Carlo, density functional theory, and molecular dynamics with classical interatomic potentials. Similarly, to capture the macroscale response, many continuum and field methods of analysis and approximation theories also exist. However, inherent difficulties are encountered in multi-model coupling approaches such as intensive computational resources and time requirements in addition to defining and deriving suitable parameters to bridge scales from one level to the next. An alternative theory, known as the peridynamic theory, is a nonlocal extension of classical continuum mechanics that is based on integral equations, in contrast with classical theory of continuum mechanics, which is based on partial differential equations, and has the capability to handle multi-scale modeling for both length and time, and address discontinuities and non-linearity. The peridynamic theory has the potential to serve as a basic model across all scales avoiding the difficulties inherent in multi-model coupling in addition to the ability to efficiently link with many microscale models including molecular dynamics. The proposed computational models must underpin the true physical processes rather than empirical correlations and deal with mechanisms operating at different length scales. Model should also minimize computational resources and time requirement. PHASE I: Propose a suitable analytical technique/method for corrosion fatigue damage prediction using peridynamics. Demonstrate the feasibility of applying this method for example case studies. Outline approach for further development of the proposed technique in Phase II. PHASE II: Develop the proposed approach to predict key chemical reactions and threshold stress levels controlling corrosion damage kinetics and factors affecting them. Implement the proposed model in a continuum code for damage prediction in simulated service conditions. Demonstrate the prototype model with available experimental data. PHASE III: Transition the peridynamic dynamic model developed for use with commercially available computational tools to assess the effects of corrosion fatique damage for Navy aircraft platforms. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Corrosive enviroment concerns are faced by many industries besides such as automotive, heavy industry, and chemical plants. The developed technology could be integrated with existing software to address design and in-service maintenance issues faced by these industries. REFERENCES: 1. Jonas, O. (1997). Molecular modeling of corrosive environments in cracks. In W.A. Van Der Sluys, R.S. Piascik & R. Zawierucha (Eds.), STP1298-EB Effects of the Environment on the Initiation of Crack Growth. doi:10.1520/STP19961S 2. Mishin, Y., Asta, M., & Li, J. (2010). Atomistic modeling of interfaces and their impact on microstructure and properties. Acta Materialia, 58(4), 1117-1151. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2009.10.049 3. Seleson, P., Parks, M.L., Gunzburger, M., & Lehoucq, R.B. (2009). Peridynamics as an upscaling of molecular dynamics. Multiscale Modeling & Simulation, 8(1), 204-227. doi:10.1137/09074807X 4. Silling, S.A. (2000). Reformulation of elasticity theory for discontinuities and long-range forces. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 48(1), 175-209. doi:10.1016/S0022-5096(99)00029-0 5. Silling, S.A., Epton, M., Weckner, O., Xu, J., & Askari, E. (2007). Peridynamic states and constitutive modeling. Journal of Elasticity, 88(2), 151-184. doi:10.1007/s10659-007-9125-1

N13A-T008: Interlaminar Mode I and Mode II Fracture Toughnesses in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate innovative interlaminar Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness test methods for CMCs. DESCRIPTION: Military aircraft platforms are targeting CMCs for aeroengine applications with a goal of increase in specific power and performance. Concerns still exist regarding CMCs in terms of their transition, maturation, reliability, and environmental durability. In particular, due to their laminated architectures, CMCs are significantly lower in mechanical properties in interlaminar direction than in in-plane counterpart. The CMCs are also highly susceptible to delayed failure (stress rupture or fatigue) even in interlaminar shear at elevated temperatures. Consequently, these inferior interlaminar properties of CMCs have shown to have a significant effect to reduce components"lives and therefore are a design criterion in many cases (e.g., airfoils) rather than their"superior"in-plane properties. Therefore, interlaminar properties of CMC should be assessed accurately with appropriate test methods and used in component design and life prediction to ensure overall structural reliability and integrity. Currently, there are a number of test standards in Military Standards (MIL STD) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for CMCs at both ambient and elevated temperatures, including interlaminar tension and shear strength test methods. However, there exist no standardized test methods for determination of interlaminar fracture toughness in CMCs. Although some previous work exists on interlaminar Mode I and Mode II fracture toughnesses of various types of CMCs, the test methods applied particularly in Mode II fracture toughness testing showed definite drawbacks and limitations. This is primarily due to non-existence of appropriate test methods in conjunction with complexities associated with an anisotropic nature of CMCs and thin configurations (typically<3 millimeter) of test coupons. Hence, an immediate, urgent need exists to develop innovative test methods to determine interlaminar Mode I and Mode II fracture toughnesses (KI and KII) or crack growth resistances (GI and GII) unique to CMC material systems. The pertinent test methods would provide ways to fabricate or tailor CMCs with a desired level of damage tolerances. Ultimately, the methods would allow one to establish reliable databases and to utilize them for design and reliability/life-prediction analyses of CMC areoengine structural components. Also consider potential applicability of the test methods at elevated temperatures up to 2400F (1316C). PHASE I: Design and develop initial concept models on interlamnar KI and KII test methods. Demonstrate the feasibility by analytical method (e.g., Finite Element Analysis) at ambient temperature. PHASE II: Develop and optimize the test methodologies and evaluate them by conducting fracture toughness testing using test coupons with different architectures of CMCs at ambient temperature. Demonstrate the feasibility of test methods applicable to elevated temperature testing. PHASE III: Perform validation and certification testing. Transition the approaches to Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), ASTM, and CMC propulsion applications. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: CMCs propulsion components have a great potential to transition to the civilian aeroengine applications. The resulting test methods development can allow the complete evaluation of interlaminar properties with which reliable component design and life prediction are feasible. The development also could provide national consensus test methods for MIL, ASTM, and related communities. REFERENCES: 1. (2012). ASTM C1292-10 Standard test method for shear strength of continuous fiber-reinforced advanced ceramics at ambient temperatures. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 15.01, doi:10.1520/C1292-10 2. (2012). ASTM C1468 06 Standard test method for transthickness tensile strength of continuous fiber-reinforced advanced ceramics at ambient temperature. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 15.01, doi:10.1520/C1468-06 3. Choi, S.R., & Bansal, N.P. (2006). Interlaminar tension/shear properties and stress rupture in shear of various continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. In N.P. Bansal, J.P. Singh & W.M. Kriven (Eds.), Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composites XI, Volume 175 (pp. 119-134). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc. doi:10.1002/9781118407844.ch11 4. Choi, S.R. & Kowalik, R.W. (2008). Interlaminar crack growth resistances of various ceramic matrix composites in mode I and mode II loading. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130(3), 031301-031308. doi:10.1115/1.2800349 5. Choi, S.R., Kowalik, R.W., Alexander, D.J., & Bansal, N.P. (2009). Elevated-temperature stress rupture in interlaminar shear of a Hi-Nic SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite. Composites Science and Technology, 69(7-8), 890-897. doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2008.12.006 6. Kumar, R.S., & Welsh, G.S. (2012). Delamination failure in ceramic matrix composites: numerical predictions and experiments. Acta Materialia, 60(6-7), 2886-2900. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2012.01.053 7. Ojard, G., Barnett, T., Dahlen, M., Santhosh, U., Ahmad, J., & Miller, R. (2010). Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness testing of a ceramic matrix composite. In D. Singh, J. Salem, S. Mathur & T. Ohji (Eds.), Mechanical Properties and Performance of Engineering Ceramics and Composites V: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 3 (pp. 195-206). Hoboken: John & Wiley Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/9780470944127.ch20

N13A-T009: High Efficiency Computation of High Reynolds Number Flows
Description:

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop a computational capability for high Reynolds number flows that provides a significant improvement in computational efficiency over existing capabilities. DESCRIPTION: The Navy seeks a computational capability for high Reynolds number flow(1) that provides a significant improvement in computational efficiency over existing software packages. Flows will be three dimensional, viscous, incompressible, with embedded solid obstacles(2). The capability must allow for inhomogenous media. While the software should take full advantage of the most recent high performance computing capabilities, high value will be placed on innovative algorithms that provide an inherent enhancement of computational efficiency. Currently, the complexity of the problem that can be modeled is limited by the efficiency of the computation. In almost every case of interest, severe approximations must be made in order to accommodate the computations within even the most sophisticated computational resources. These approximations limit accuracy, introduce risk and uncertainty, decrease the robustness of the computations, and necessitate a highly educated and experienced work force to perform the analyses. PHASE I: The company will develop an algorithm or set of algorithms which will provide a significant improvement in computational efficiency over existing approaches. The company will demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm in meeting Navy needs and provide a Phase II development plan with performance goals and key technical milestones. PHASE II: Based on the results of Phase I and the Phase II development plan, the company will implement the algorithm or algorithms into a prototype computational capability, and demonstrate its performance against a government-specified problem. Evaluation results will be used to refine the algorithm into a system that will meet Navy needs. The company will prepare a Phase III development plan to transition the technology to Navy use. PHASE III: If Phase II is successful, the Navy will fund the company to extend the development into a user-friendly software package and to support the government-specified user community via documentation and training. Once the software has come into routine use within the user community, the company will be expected to maintain and update the software. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: High Reynolds number hydrodynamics computation is of interest in a very wide array of applications, including, to name just two examples, aircraft design and race-car development. REFERENCES: 1) Ugo Piomelli and Elias Balaras,"Wall-Layer Models for Large-Eddy Simulations,"Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2002, 34:34974 2) David A. Boger* and James J. Dreyer,"Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments for Underwater Vehicles Using Overset Grids,"AIAA 2006-1148, (44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 9-12 January 2006, Reno, Nevada).

N13A-T010: Prehensor for one atmosphere diving suit
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop a manipulator for an exosuit or ROV that possesses multiple fingers and an opposable/indexable thumb that more closely mimics the dexterity and flexibility of the human hand. DESCRIPTION: Current exosuits and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are equipped with manipulators that resemble lobster claws or pliers that can simply open and close. This form of manipulation of very limited and results in excessive time spent working a problem underwater, development of task specific tools that can be operated by a claw or acceptance that a specifc job simply can't be accomplished. The development of a manipulator that mimics the dexterity of a human hand would provide significant benefit to the underwater industry by expanding the range of operations a diver in an exosuit, or a pilot of an ROV can accomplish. Control of manipulator is complicated by the need for remote operation; the diver's hands in an exosuit hand are internal to the suit, with mechanical controls that penetrate the hand pod and operate the external manipulator; whereas an ROV pilot may be in a control station thousands of feet away from the ROV. PHASE I: Demonstrate feasability for prehensor with multiple fingers and indexable thumb to be utilized by a diver in an exosuit or a pilot of a ROV. PHASE II: Develop prototype of prehensor for use on exosuit that demonstrates increased dexterity over current manipulator. Develop mounting interface to enable use on exosuit. Design should meet requirements of NAVSEA P-9290 for certification. PHASE III: Develop production model of prehensor for use on exosuit. Design to be certified under NAVSEA P-9290 PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: A prehensor with increased dexterity over current manipulators would provide significant advantage to commercial diving companies who operate one atmosphere diving suits and underwater ROVs. REFERENCES: 1. Nuytten, Phil; (1998) Life Support in Small One-Atmosphere Underwater Work Systems. 2. Nuytco Research Limited, Website: www.nuytco.com; http://www.nuytco.com/research/prehensor.shtml 3. Bissett, Tom, Viau, Glen; OceanWorks International Inc, (2003), Atmosphereic Diving as an Alternative Technology for Platform Inspections, Underwater Intervention 2003. 4. Gibson, Jim, English, Jim; Oceanworks International Inc, (2002), The U.S. Navy ADS2000, Beginning a New Era in Submarine Rescue.

N13A-T011: Novel Approaches to Bond Quality Nondestructive Evaluation with Emphasis on Kissing Bond Detection and Bond Line Assessment
Description:

OBJECTIVE: To identify and demonstrate the feasibility of previously unexplored methods for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of adhesive bond quality, including in-particular kissing bonds, both as initially fabricated and as a function of service. Bond quality implies at least a semi-quantitative indication of bond strength. DESCRIPTION: Current state-of-the-art in bondline quality inspection is capable of identifying the location and size of delaminations in bonded joints. These inspection methods, which include ultrasonics, thermography, shearography, and X-ray, are universally used throughout the aerospace community to detect most bondline defects formed during part manufacturing as well as failures that may occur in the operational environment. These systems, however, have proven to be unable to detect weakened (also called"kissing") bonds that may have formed during initial manufacturing. Such bonds may have occurred due to contamination at the bondline surface or in the adhesive, incorrect thermal cure of the adhesive, or poor mixing of the adhesive"s constituents. Bonded joints are used extensively for both civilian and military aircraft applications. Assessing the quality of these bonds is typically performed using NDE techniques such as bulk wave ultrasonics or thermography. These methods cannot reliably differentiate between a good bond and a so-called"kissing"bond, presenting major barrier to the optimum utilization of adhesive bonding as a joining method in primary airframe structures. This solicitation seeks novel approaches based on bulk or guided wave techniques which provide a semi-quantitative evaluation of bond shear strength sufficient to detect a variety of kissing bond defects ranging from fully to partially adhered bond line flaws. The ability to measure the bond strength of joints of dissimilar materials such as composites bonded to aluminum or titanium is highly desirable, as well as the ability to discern bond strengths of bonds in layered assemblies. Instruments/equipment to be derived from any such new approach must be factory as well as field deployable. PHASE I: Identify a particular approach to be taken and show feasibility by demonstrating a strong correlation between predicted bond quality for a range of appropriately flawed test specimens and the results of destructive testing of these same specimens. Both initially fabricated and aged conditions should be addressed. PHASE II: The performer shall demonstrate increased capability by measuring the bond strength on realistic aircraft designs manufactured with bonded structures. Develop and deliver an optimized version of equipment based on the approach demonstrated in Phase I. Conduct both factory and field demonstrations of appropriate prototypes. PHASE III: Partner with a tech transition small business and/or OEM to scale up and produce the equipment and methodology. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Military application: The advanced bond inspection tool would be beneficial for almost all composite structures and for hybrid assemblies of composite and metal. Commercial application: In addition to almost all DoD systems applications include recreational sporting industry, commercial aircraft, and marine applications. REFERENCES: [1] T. Kundu, A. Maji, T. Ghosh, and K. Maslov"Detection of kissing bonds by Lamb waves", Ultrasonics, Volume 35, Issue 8, January 1998, Pages 573580. [2] J. Tucker,"Ultrasonic Spectroscopy for corrosion detection and multiple layer bond inspection", Proc 1st Joint DoD/FAA/NASA Aging Aircraft Conference. 1998. [3] J.K. Chambers and J.R. Tucker,"Bondline analysis using swept frequency ultrasonic spectroscopy", Insight J. British Institute of NDT, Vol. 41, 1999. [4] Yan, Dawei; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Neild, Simon A."Experimental and Theoretical Characterization of Kissing Bonds in Adhesive Joint Using Non-Linear Ultrasonic Measurement"Review of Progress in Quantative Non-destructive Testing, Vol. 29. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1211, pp. 1190-1189 (2010). [5]. R. Bossi, K, Housen and W. Shepherd,"Application of Stress Waves to Bond Inspection,"SAMPE Proceedings, May 16-20, 2004, Long Beach, CA.

N13A-T012: Mechanical Property Characterization and Modeling for Structural Mo-Si-B Alloys for High Temperature Applications
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop and mature mechanical property models that will predict mechanical properties of refractory alloys. Development of similar predictive tools to support screening of refractory alloys and optimization of chemistry and microstructure will enable near-term implementation of this class of structural materials. DESCRIPTION: There is a need to develop mechanical property models and associated engineering codes for the prediction of mechanical properties of refractory alloys. Models and simulation codes have been established for nickel-based superalloys. Development of similar predictive tools to support screening of refractory alloys and optimization of chemistry and microstructure will enable near-term implementation of this class of structural materials. Characterization of the powder chemistry and interstitials should be document during each stage of the processing. Following development of a specific process to produce medium scale material lots of Mo-Si-B powder, maturation of the parameters required to perform a small scale Mo-Si-B extrusion is also required. Characterization of the extruded material properties should be performed. Ideally this characterization would include measurement of the tensile properties up to 2300 degrees F and potentially 2500 degrees F, as well as the creep resistance of the alloy at 2000 degrees F or higher. This characterization should also include documentation of the static oxidation resistance at three or four key temperatures across a range between 1500F to 2500 degrees F. PHASE I: Given a specific processing path for a Mo-Si-B alloy, one will characterize the room temperature mechanical properties of the refractory alloy (ultimate, yield, compressive, fatigue, etc.) in small parts. . Design plans for material mechanical property characterization at several high temperatures ranging from 1500F to 2500 degrees F. Microstructures need to be recorded and correlated with all mechanical property measurements. ICME (integrated computational materials engineering) should be utilized to assist in development of a material/process/property relationship. PHASE II: Mechanical characterization of Mo-Si-B alloy samples at several high temperatures ranging from 1500F to 2500 degrees F. Conduct material property tests at the level required to provide data for the design of a suitable component for an OEM for relevant engine components. Using ICME, provide material for manufacture and test of the suitable component. PHASE III: Transition the material characterization and models to a suitable industrial material producer or engine OEM (original engine manufacturer). Commercialize the material for use in DoD and civilian markets. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: If these models are successfully developed, the material would have utility as high temperature material of construction for civil air transport and as a high temperature forging die material for both commercial and military production equipment. REFERENCES: 1. R.L. Fleischer."High Temperature, High Strength Materials - an Overview, Journal of Metals 37(12) 16-20, 1985. 2. J.D. Destefani, Advances in Intermetallics, Advanced Materials and Processes, 135 (2) 37-41, 1989. 3. J.H. Schneibel, et al. Assessment of processing routes and strength of a 3-phase molybdenum boron silicide, Scripta Materialia, 38(7) 1169-1176, 1998.

N13A-T013: Probiotics for Maintaining Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Health and the Readiness of the U.S. Navy"s Marine Mammal Systems
Description:

OBJECTIVE: To develop probiotic pharmaceuticals to treat and prevent gastrointestinal disease in dolphins and improve their health through the utilization of indigenous commensal microbes of these marine mammals. DESCRIPTION: The U.S. Navy uses Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Fleet"s operational Marine Mammal Systems to protect harbours and Navy assets and to detect and/or mark underwater mines. To contribute to the maintenance of the fitness of these marine mammals for duty and the readiness of the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Systems, the U.S. Navy is interested in developing probiotics for these animals. Both general protective effects and efficacy on gastrointestinal diseases are desired in this probotic to help address the potential negative impacts of an unbalanced gastrointestinal microbiome, inflammatory disease, or potential pathogens (e.g., Clostridium difficile and Helicobacter spp.) on dolphin health (1). Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in adequate quantities (2). Additionally, probiotics have been subcategorized into probiotic drugs (intended to cure, treat, or prevent disease), probiotic foods (which include foods, food ingredients, dietary supplements), direct fed microbials (probiotics for animal use), and designer probiotics (genetically modified probiotics) (3). Both bacteria and yeast have been used as probiotics in humans and animals (4, 5). Once ingested, probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the intestinal microflora, inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria, promote good digestion, boost immune function, and increase resistance to infection (3, 4). Medical conditions for which evidence has been obtained that probiotics may help in the prevention and/or treatment include various diarrheal illnesses, especially antibiotic-induced diarrhea; urinary tract infections; irritable bowel syndrome; atopic eczema; respiratory infections; inflammatory bowel disease; and gastroenteritis relapses caused by Clostridium difficile bacteria after antibiotic therapy (6). Regulatory requirements differ for probiotics depending on their intended use (3, 7). PHASE I: Provide an initial development effort that isolates and identifies potential probiotic candidates for Tusiops truncatus derived from indigenous commensal microbes of these marine animals. Tursiops truncatus indigenous bacterial species with in vitro immunomodulatory and dolphin gastric and enteric pathogen (e.g. Helicobacter spp, Campylobacter spp, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp) growth inhibitory activities are desired. Microencapsulate the candidate probiotic microorganisms for Tursiops truncatus to enable selective delivery to, and release in, the dolphin intestine; enhance viability of the probiotics during delivery into the body; and enhance the viability of the organisms during storage. PHASE II: Demonstrate the safety of the commensal-derived probiotic, and assess the efficacy of the probiotic for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, in Tursiops truncatus. Demonstrate that the microencapsulated probiotic mircroorganisms colonize the dolphin intestine better than corresponding uncoated probiotic microorganisms. Assess shelf life of product and general feasibility for long-term production of, and access to, a dolphin probiotic product. PHASE III: Continue the program forward and address any Food and Drug Administration regulatory matters to reach full probiotic development. Commercialize the product. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: A probiotic for Tursiops truncatus would have application in the care of captive and managed populations of these animals world-wide (e.g. aquariums, marine parks). REFERENCES: 1. S. Venn-Watson, et al,"Primary bacterial pathogens in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncates: needles in haystacks of commensal and environmental microbes"Dis. Aquat Organ., Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 87-93 (2008). 2. Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Working Group report on evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria, Cordoba, Argentina, October 1-4, 2001. Accessed at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/a0512e/a0512e00.pdf on August 14, 2012. 3. M. E. Sanders,"How do we Know When Something Called"Probiotic: is Really a Probiotic? A Guideline for Consumes and Health Care Professional"Functional Food Reviews, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3-12 (2009). 4. S. Parvez, et al,"Probiotics and their Fermented Food Products are Beneficial for Health", J. Appl. Microbio., Vol. 100, pp. 1171-1185 (2006). 5. F. Chaucheyras-Durand and H. Durand,"Probiotics in Animal Nutrition and Health"Beneficial Microbes, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3-9 (2010). 6. B. R. Goldin and S. L. Gorbach,"Clinical Indications for Probiotics: An Overview", Clin. Infect. Dis., Vol. 46 Suppl2:S96-100; discussion S144-51 (2008). 7. V. Venugopalan, et al,"Regulatory oversight and safety of probiotic use. Emerg. Infect. Dis. (2010). Accessed at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/edi/article/16/11/10-0574.htm.

N13A-T015: Airborne Sensing for Ship Airwake Surveys
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a technique for in-situ experimental measurement of full-scale ship superstructure airwakes using small air vehicles. DESCRIPTION: Much of the challenge associated with recovering sea-based aircraft to Naval vessels stems from the complex airwake generated by the ship superstructure and convecting downstream into the aircraft's approach path. While considerable progress has been made in the computatational evaluation of ship airwakes [1, 2], advances in predictive methods are hampered by the difficulties involved in obtaining experimental data for validation. Subscale wind tunnel testing provides some data but introduces difficulties related to modeling detail, scaling and blockage effects, and instrumentation. Full-scale testing with fixed anemometers mounted to the ship deck requires installation of a number of masts, instrumentation cabling, and signal processing and recording hardware. Practical difficulties arise in scheduling of the ship, installing the equipment, and the fact the all aviation operations are precluded while the anemometers are installed. Above all, this approach does not provide any data for the airwake aft of the ship's stern, or above the height of the highest anemometers. Various remote sensing approaches that would address the off-deck measurement limitation are under consideration but at present time it is unclear if these will lead to a viable solution. A recent methodology validation effort employing a remotely-operated helicopter behind a full-scale vessel demonstrated low-resolution mapping of the ship airwake by a small unmanned aircraft traversing the airwake [3]. This topic builds on that concept, envisioning high-resolution airwake measurements throughout a 3D field obtained using small air vehicles. The vehicles may be fixed-wing, rotary wing, tethered, or free flying. Tethered vehicles (kites, gyro-gliders [4] etc.) may be advantageous in terms of cost, lack of onboard propulsion system, and ease of setup, operational footprint, and launch & recovery. In addition, the constraint of a towline of known length may be simplify determination of the position behind the ship. The vehicle will serve as a platform for air data and/or other sensors and either record the data onboard or transmit them to an operator on the ship. The entire system should be easy to transport, operable by a crew of minimum size and quickly deployable and stowable while underway. When stowed, the system should not interfere with flight operations. Postprocessing should allow timely reconstruction of the airwake. The unsteady nature of the airwake will require development of advanced mathematical techniques to provide useful time-history reconstructions and/or statistical representations of the airwake field from the discrete asynchronous samples obtained with the vehicle. Multiple-vehicle concepts may provide significant improvements in the ability to reconstruct the unsteady 3D airwake. Airwake velocities may be measured using air data sensors carried by the air vehicle, by inference based on air vehicle flight mechanics, a combination of these, or other innovative means. The vehicle should be capable of sampling velocities anywhere within a volume bounded by lateral angular displacements from the ship's stern of at least +/-30 deg, vertical angular displacements of zero to at least 20 deg, and downrange from as close to the ship's stern as possible, to as far astern as possible. Air velocities must be resolved into a ship coordinate system; hence if velocities are measured while the air vehicle is in motion, means to measure the vehicle's motion relative to the ship must be provided. Measurements should be possible from range starting at 10 kt or less out to at least 50 kt. Velocities should be resolved to within at least +/- 5% in speed and +/- 5 deg in direction. The measurement bandwidth, spatial resolution, and volume over which the air velocity is averaged should be stated. The ability to map the field autonomously without operator intervention would be desirable. The method will ideally be applicable to any air-capable ship. Proposals should provide a credible review of the existing technologies and clearly outline the reasons underlying the choice of solution. While this topic is not focused on vehicle launch and recovery, proposals must clearly identify a viable means for launch and recovery of the aerial vehicle. PHASE I: Define and develop a concept for an economical air vehicle with associated sensor and data processing techniques for measuring 3D unsteady ship airwakes. Demonstrate technical feasibility of the vehicle concept using a shore-based ground vehicle. Demonstrate viability of critical sensor and data processing capabilities in laboratory testing and/or simulation. PHASE II: Produce prototype hardware based on Phase I work. Complete qualifications and certifications required for operation aboard a Naval vessel. Demonstrate on a Naval vessel for which CFD predictions and, if possible, previous experimental data are available. Compare results with analytical and previous experimental data to demonstrate efficacy of technique. Document validation study, data processing methods and algorithms, and all hardware elements. PHASE III: Refine vehicle and supporting equipment based on experience gathered in Phase II and produce a limited number for use by NAVAIR and NAVSEA in ship airwake mapping. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: This technology will enhance our understanding of large structure, bluff-body aerodynamics such as encountered on commercial buildings, in particular those with integrated helicopter landing facilities. Low-cost air vehicles, in particular tethered aircraft, could provide commercial vessels with an as-needed over-the-horizon surveillence capability (weather; other shipping). Such aircraft could also provide commercially successful devices for scientific/educational recreation. REFERENCES: 1. Polsky, S., Imber, R., Czerwiec, R., and Ghee, T.,"A Computational and Experimental Determination of the Air Flow Around the Landing Deck of a US Navy Destroyer (DDG): Part II,"Proceedings of the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Miami, FL, Jun. 2007. AIAA 2007-4484 2. Shipman, J., Arunajatesan, S., Cavallo, P.A., Sinha, N., and Polsky, S. A.,"Dynamic CFD Simulation of Aircraft Recovery to an Aircraft Carrier,"Proceedings of the 26th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, August, 2008. AIAA 2008-6227 3. Metzger, J. D., Snyder, M. R., Burks, J. S. and Kang, H. S.,"Measurement of Ship Air Wake Impact on a Remotely Piloted Aerial Vehicle,"Proceedings of the 68th Annual AHS Forum, Ft. Worth, Texas, May 1-3, 2012 4. Young, A. M.,"Captive Helicopter-Kite Means,"US Patent 2,429,502, October 21, 1947

N13A-T016: On-Board Data Handling for Longer Duration Autonomous Systems on Expeditionary Missions
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop autonomous systems with flexible mechanisms to organize and manage data in a way that the systems can make better use of the large volumes of data encountered over the course of missions of moderate length and coverage area, such as support of small Marine units or similarly sized maritime operations. The types of data handled will include both local sensor data, and data communicated by friendly systems that may involve temporal and spatial relationships. The goal would be to be able to use this capability to support improved planning, decision making, control, and system-level situational awareness on-board the vehicle. Note that the development of new hardware or platforms is outside the scope of this topic. DESCRIPTION: Many current autonomous systems have on-board sensors that can collect a great deal of data over the course of a mission, particularly as autonomous systems are increasingly being used in more complex environments over larger areas and longer time durations. However, the volume of that data can be so large that it may not be feasible to store it all locally on the systems. At the same time, the communications and security constraints of the military environment may preclude using any form of remote storage such as cloud computing. If increased hardware cost, size, weight, and power can be accommodated in the design of an autonomous system, it may be possible to store large amounts of data on-board, at least for part of the mission. However, even when massive local storage of data is possible, using that data effectively remains a very difficult problem. Such massive sets of raw data are at present typically used primarily for post-mission analysis, rather than to guide system plans, decisions, and actions during the course of the mission. Too often, the real-time use of the data in is limited to very narrow slices of the total flow of data. This could in turn lead to poor planning and decision making such as failing to recognize the same or similar situations and attempting to repeat the same unsuccessful actions over and over. For the future, it is important that autonomous systems begin to take advantage of the broad range of data available to them over the course of an entire mission to the greatest extent possible and identify and utilize what is relevant to support planning, decision-making, and control in particular mission and environmental circumstances. This should involve sensed and communicated data that has temporal and spatial relationships as opposed to just factual data coded in a world model. Biological systems are very adept at this kind of high-efficiency, low-cost scanning and summarization of massive amounts of data, so one promising approach might be to utilize mechanisms and models derived from recent practical insights from cognitive and neuro science. This may include methods for processing incoming streams of data at different time-scales, utilizing longer-term memories in helping to determine what is important, and shorter-term memories for providing real-time analysis of important incoming data, and anticipating and focusing as early as possible on which parts of the data are most likely to be relevant and important. PHASE I: Phase I will focus on limited-scope development and implementation and feasibility of initial mechanisms to organize and manage data in a way that the systems can make better use of the large volumes of data encountered over the course of missions of moderate length and coverage area. Its outcome will be the results of a feasibility study in which a simplified version of the overall approach will be demonstrated against some combination of stored data, simulation, and/or laboratory experiments as appropriate to the particular methods being explored. Also, important will be to identify metrics. PHASE II: In Phase II, the simplified approach demonstrated in Phase I must be broadened and generalized to the point where it can be demonstrated and assessed for viability against the metrics defined in Phase I within more complicated laboratory settings and/or in limited field experiments. The experiments must include real-world perception, action decisions based on situation, and demonstrating whether continued operations without performance degradation are feasible over a long period of time. The results of Phase II must also include a realistic assessment of whether the overall approach is working and can be scaled up for larger tests. PHASE III: In Phase III, the objective will be to demonstrate that a finalized and field-hardened version of a system with the capabilities shown at the end of Phase II can be transitioned into a specific naval autonomous system and used to support field experiments. Marine Corps autonomy systems designed to support autonomy experiments may provide good candidates for this phase of the STTR. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: A successful demonstration of long-term memory structures that can directly support rapid selection and attention to the most relevant data would have impacts well beyond Navy systems, since these same capabilities would also enable lower cost and more cost-effective autonomy for a variety of industrial robotics and consumer products. Commercial/industrial robotic systems would be obvious beneficiaries in the private sector, but other and unexpected sectors such as service robotics or even the toy industry could also benefit from affordable systems that exhibit fast decision making at low energy and computational cost. REFERENCES: 1. Laird, John E., Keegan R. Kinkade, Shiwali Mohan and Joseph Z. Xu. 2012."Cognitive Robotics using the Soar Cognitive Architecture."Cognitive Robotics AAAI Technical Report WS-12-06. Accessed July 27, 2012. http://www.shiwali.me/content/laird_AAAICogRob_2012.pdf 2."The Oxford Mobile Robotics Group, Projects: Life Long Learning,"http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~mobile/wikisite/pmwiki/pmwiki.php?n=Projects.LifeLongLearning, retrieved September, 2012. 3. Kirstein, Stephan, Heiko Wersing, Horst-Michael Gross and Edgar Krner. 2012."A Life-Long Learning Vector Quantization Approach for Interactive Learning of Multiple Categories."Elsevier. Accessed July 27, 2012. http://www.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/~hwersing/KirsteinWersingEtAl_NeurNe... 4. Xu, Joseph Z. and John E. Laird. 2011."Combining Learned Discrete and Continuous Action Models."Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Accessed July 27, 2012. http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/AAAI/AAAI11/paper/viewFile/3679/4098 5. Jones, Randolph M. and Robert E. Wray III. 2011."Evaluating Integrated, Knowledge-Rich Cognitive Systems."Advances in Cognitive Systems: Papers from the 2011 AAAI Fall Symposium (FS-11-01). Accessed July 27, 2012. http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/FSS/FSS11/paper/viewFile/4183/4557 6. Schrader, Sven, Marc-Oliver Gewaltig, Ursula Krner, and Edgar Krner. 2009."Cortext: A columnar model of bottom-up and top-down processing in the neocortex."Elsevier, Neural Networks 22 (2009) 1055-1070. Accessed July 27, 2012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0893608009001671 7. Oentaryo, Richard J. and Michel Pasquier. 2008."Towards a Novel Integrated Neuro-Cognitive Architecture (INCA)."2008 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2008). Accessed July 27, 2012. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4634058 8. Kirstein, Stephan, Heiko Wersing and Edgar Krner. 2008."A Biologically Motivated Visual Memory Architecture for Online Learning of Objects."Neural Networks 21 (2008), pp. 65-77. Accessed July 27, 2012. https://www.tu-ilmenau.de/fileadmin/media/neurob/publications/journals/K... 9. Duch, Wlodzislaw, Richard J. Oentaryo and Michel Pasquier. 2008."Cognitive Architectures: Where do we go from here?"ACM, Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. Accessed July 27, 2012. http://www.agiri.org/docs/CognitiveArchitectures.pdf 10. Wray, Robert, Christian Lebiere, Peter Weinstein, Krishna Jha, Jonathan Springer, Ted Belding, Bradley Best and Van Parunak. 2007."Towards a Complete, Multi-level Cognitive Architecture."LMCO. Accessed July 27, 2012. http://www.atl.lmco.com/papers/1462.pdf 11. Krner, Edgar and Gen Matsumoto. 2002."Cortical Architecture and Self-Referential Control for Brain-Like Computation."IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Sept/Oct 2002. Accessed July 27, 2012. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1044182 12. Conway, Martin A. and David C. Rubin. 1993."The Structure of Autobiographical Memory."Chapter 4 of Theories of Memory by Alan F. Collins et al, 1993, available in Google Books. ISBN 0-86377-209-0. *Note that the above list is meant as useful background reading, but is neither comprehensive nor meant to endorse a particular approach.

N13A-T017: Metamaterial Enhanced Thermophotovoltaics
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Using metamaterial technology, develop a coating that, when heated, emits photons over a defined, narrow wavelength range and demonstrate coupling of the photons to a thermophotovoltaic converter. DESCRIPTION: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion produces electrical power from heat in a simple, solid-state device amenable to fielded operation. Combustion TPV has the potential to achieve power and energy densities greater than 250 W/kg and 1200 Whr/kg, respectively, nearly ten times that of rechargeable batteries. Thus, TPV is an enabling power source for remote systems, such as unmanned vehicles, as well as man-portable power sources. Currently, TPV photon conversion devices suffer from low efficiencies due, in part, to a mismatch between their discrete bandgap and the spectral emission of the heat source (the emitter). Photonic crystals have been shown to enhance conversion efficiency by providing an improved spectral match between emitter and converter, but are limited to collecting light at near normal incidence. Metamaterials are engineered composites exhibiting superior properties not observed in the constituent materials. Recent work has demonstrated high emissivity from metamaterials in the mid-infrared region which may allow their use as efficient, angularly-independent narrow-band emitters to spectrally match thermal or solar radiation to the TPV converter bandgap. Because the TPV converter and emitter are strongly coupled, it is best to develop them as a system. The purpose of this topic is to demonstrate an emitter/TPV converter system that operates in the range of 1100 to 1300K, emits between 1000 and 3000 nm, demonstrates angular insensitivity, and the potential of approaching 30% photon to electron conversion efficiency. The metamaterial based emitter may be made from any combination of constituent materials and be in the form of a coating on a substrate or a stand-alone material. The TPV converter may be an existing technology, such as InGaAs or GaSb, or a novel design. Efforts will include modeling, design, fabrication and testing. The successful proposal will include at least one novel emitter/TPV converter design that holds promise for enabling TPV conversion efficiencies approaching 30%. PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of designing and fabricating a metamaterial emitter/TPV converter system in which the emitter spectrum can be tailored to match the TPV converter spectral response so that 35% or more of the emitted photons are in-band with respect to the TPV converter and the photon to electron conversion efficiency approaches 30%. Determine the spectral emittance and TPV cell spectral response, and calculate the expected system energy conversion efficiency. PHASE II: Fabricate and assemble metamaterial/TPV converter systems based on the success of the Phase I work. Develop methods to improve spectral emission selectivity, optical coupling efficiency, and TPV conversion efficiency. Extend Phase I analysis in order to determine tradeoffs between emitter temperature, emitter material, and TPV converter bandgap. PHASE III: Develop prototype production line for the fabrication of metamaterial emitter and TPV converter and commercialization plans using the knowledge gained during Phases I and II. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Efficient TPV power generators could be used as lightweight, portable power sources. REFERENCES: 1. S. Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming , Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 380 (2003). 2. C. Rohr et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114510 (2006). 3. Y. Liu and X. Zhang, Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 2494 (2011). 4. X. Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011). 5. P. Bermel et al., Nano. Research Lett. 6, 549 (2011). 6. Ch. Wu et al., J. Optics 14, 024005 (2012).

N13A-T018: Compact robust testbed for cold-atom clock and sensor applications
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop a compact robust testbed that can be fielded aboard a mobile Navy platform to validate the performance of cold-atom technology applications such as magnetometry, inertial navigation, gravity gradiometry, timekeeping and frequency synthesis. DESCRIPTION: Cold-atom systems (temperatures in the vicinity of the recoil limit, about 1 microkelvin) provide the best oscillators that are available in the laboratory. For example, atomic fountain clocks now provide the US national standard realization of the second, and are the most accurate clocks contained in the DoD Master Clock ensemble. Cold atom devices have proven or potential advantages over competing technologies in laboratory-based implementations of applications such as magnetometry, gyroscopy, accelerometry, gravimetry, gravity gradiometry, timekeeping and frequency synthesis. Recognizing the much greater precision that is possible when atomic optical transitions are used as frequency standards as compared to microwave transitions, the General Council on Weights and Measures has noted the likely future redefinition of the second in terms of an optical transition. Such an optical atomic clock will have to be realized in a cold-atom system. The remarkable advances made in cold-atom science during the past twenty-five years, accompanied by great improvements in optical technology, now make cold-atom measurements a standard in precision measurement laboratories. The maturing state of laboratory techniques in this area suggests that it is timely to begin testing cold-atom technology on Navy platforms, to ascertain whether the great advantages it displays in a controlled laboratory environment can also be realized by warfighters. This Topic calls for the development of a cold-atom testbed that can be deployed aboard a mobile Navy platform, to demonstrate functions relevant to navigation, timekeeping, sensing or communication. The testbed must offer turnkey generation of a laser-cooled cloud of atoms in a vacuum cell that can be sustained for a sufficient length of time to demonstrate functions of interest. It must require no resources other than footprint space and standard electrical power from the Navy platform and must meet specific platform requirements for test instrumentation. The testbed is not intended to be a candidate to replace any particular device that is currently installed on a Navy platform. It would be deemed to be highly successful if, for example, it were accepted into Trident Warrior experimental trials. The previous paragraph is a complete description of the requirements of this Topic. There is no preference for platform or platforms (whether subsurface, surface, land or air), no preference for function or functions, no preference for atom, no minimum size of cloud, no minimum function data acquisition time. These will simply be ranking factors in the competition. PHASE I: The deliverable of Phase I will be a design report for the candidate system, accompanied by engineering drawings. PHASE II: The deliverable of Phase II will be a working system as proposed in Phase I, modified as appropriate by findings of research conducted during Phase II. PHASE III: The deliverable of Phase II will be delivered to a relevant research laboratory in the Shore Establishment (e.g. NRL, USNO or NAVAIR Pax River, all of which have technical expertise in this area) for test and validation. This will be focused on the issue of whether the delivered system meets the standard for inclusion in exercises such as Trident Warrior. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Although the system proposed here is intended to serve as a testbed on a Navy platform, a functional system of this type would be of great interest to the research and development community. For example, although Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases was first demonstrated by ONR grantees in 1995, and the basic experimental principles are openly published and well understood, its attainment in a laboratory environment remains challenging due to the complexity of the coordinated laser, magnet and vacuum systems that are required. Industrial infrastructure did not exist five years ago, but ONR SBIR support has resulted in the development of a number of commercial entities which have made remarkable progress on the necessary components of such a testbed, e.g. ColdQaunta, Vescent Photonics, AOSense and Triad Technologies. In fact, two of these SBIR contractors, ColdQuanta and Vescent Photonics, have recently started successful commercial sales in the academic research markets, of cold-atom apparatus developed with ONR support. These products do not have the functionality of the system proposed in this topic; they are rather steps along the path towards establishing a commercial infrastructure to supply low-cost, reliable and standard components. In addition, we know of larger entities, such as Honeywell, which have instituted cold atom R & D projects with their own funding. There are also applications in the academic research sector in which many universities wish to provide training to students in cold-atom applications, but they face barriers to low-cost entry. A testbed of this type would substantially reduce the technical barriers to entry to other prospective participants in the defense electronics industry, REFERENCES: 1) Simplified system for creating a Bose-Einstein condensate, HJ Lewandowski, DM Harber, DL Whitaker, and EA Cornell, J. Low Temp. Phys., Vol. 132, Nr. 5, Springer (2003), p. 309-367 2) Atom Chips, ed. Jakob Reichel and Vladan Vuletic (Wiley-VCH, New York 2011) 3) Magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms, Jzsef Fortgh and Claus Zimmermann, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235 (2007)

N13A-T019: Low Frequency / High Sensitivity Tri-Axial Magnetometer
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Create a compact low cost tri-axial magnetometer with low noise at low frequencies that can be used for airborne and undersea applications. DESCRIPTION: Significant progress has been made recently in developing room temperature magnetometers with sensitivities approaching that of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs).[1] The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) has pushed the limit in sensitivity with advances in multiferroic materials and atomic magnetometers pursuing a sensitivity goal of 0.1 femtotesla (fT)/rtHz in the frequency band between 1100 Hz, which is an order of magnitude better than the best SQUIDs.[2] Other work has focused on designing tri-axial magnetometers based on vapor cell technology.[3] Extracting the vector components of the magnetic field eliminates sensor dead-zones and allows for better signal characterization compared to only collecting a total-field value. Lower frequency tri-axial operation presents the additional challenge of sensor stability in achieving low noise, both stability of electronic components and stability of sensor orientation in Earth"s magnetic field. A current Navy SBIR should achieve a total-field noise level of 10 picotesla(pT)/rtHz in the 0.01 100 Hz frequency band using less than 10 Watts of power for airborne applications,[4] but additional noise reduction at still lower frequencies and power levels is needed for surveillance applications. This solicitation seeks to take the next step in magnetometer designs by combining recent developments in high sensitivity with a tri-axial design to create a compact low-cost/low power device that is operational in Earth"s background magnetic field. PHASE I: Define the concept for a tri-axial magnetometer having a noise level of 1 pT/rtHz in the frequency band between 0.001 10 Hz along each axis and having less than 30 pT of variation in the scalar field value over all orientations. The magnetometer should consume less than one watt of power on average, be a compact design (<100 cm3 for the sensor head and<1000 cm3 for the electronics), and be cost competitive with flux gate magnetometers in quantities of 1000. Explicitly show how the magnetometer can achieve these goals in Earth"s field and identify key sensor components. While not required, designs that can measure the vector field components in a stable frame of reference during physical rotation of the sensor will be highly favored. PHASE II: Demonstrate the design meets the Phase I requirements in a laboratory bench top test. Then construct two compact prototype magnetometers for verification of performance in Earth"s background field. Provide an assessment of manufacturing yield and product reliability of the final design. PHASE III: This sensor would be expected to transition to commercial low cost production for PMS 485 in support of the DNS Shallow Water Surveillance System. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The developed technology could improve attitude control on commercial satellites and provide an error correction signal for Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) would be interested in the technology for geologic surveys with an absolute accuracy of 1 nT in the calibrated vector components and an absolute scalar accuracy of 200 pT. REFERENCES: 1. Dmitry Budker & Michael Romalis,"Optical Magnetometry,"Nature Physics 3, 227-234 (2007). 2. Bill Coblenz,"DARPA HUMS Program,"http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/DSO/Programs /Hetersostructural_Uncooled_Magnetic_Sensors_(HUMS).aspx, 2011. 3. S. J. Seltzera and M. V. Romalis,"Unshielded three-axis vector operation of a spin-exchange-relaxation-free atomic magnetometer,"Applied Physics Letters Vol. 85, No. 20, 15 November 2004. 4. Smullin, S.J., Savukov, I., Vasilakis, G., Ghosh, R.K., and Romalis, M.V.,"A Low-Noise High-Density Alkali Metal Scalar Magnetometer."arXiv:physics/0611085, 24 Jul. 2009. Web. 11 Nov. 2009.

N13A-T020: Proactive Decision Support Tools & Design Schema for Dynamic/Uncertain Environments
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Support improved operational (e.g. combat system; command & control (C2)) decision making under high stress, uncertain operational conditions through the development of proactive, context-based decision support aids. The objective of this project is to create a scientifically-principled design specification and prototype concepts for a set of decision aids capable of supporting rapid adaptive planning and dynamic execution across evolving missions with dynamic tasking requirements. The result will be a consistent approach to proactive decision support that: 1) will facilitate rapid, affordable development for different functions in the combat center; 2) minimize training, 3) allow rapid insertion of decision support concepts into C2 & combat systems, and 4) increase end user adoption and utilization of tools developed in accordance with the design schema. DESCRIPTION: Many military domains require agile, time-critical decision making in order to achieve the speed of command required and dynamic re-planning. Further, these domains increasingly involve diverse and/or complex missions under conditions of high uncertainty. Undersea warfare, for example, is becoming more complex, with submarines tasked to execute an ever wider array of missions in dynamic, unpredictable and environmentally-challenging operational environments [1]. As the proliferation of new generations of quiet diesel and other submarine technologies continues across the globe, the US nuclear submarine force must continually improve its undersea warfare detection and tracking capabilities to preserve its superiority [2]. Improvements to sensors and new automation capabilities are constantly coming on-stream to offer support for warfighters. However, it is challenging to integrate these capabilities into the current combat systems and command and control (C2) architectures. The current combat information systems are data-centric, relatively inflexible to dynamic mission demands, and insensitive to mission context. Current Operator Machine Interfaces (OMIs) need to be task-centric and support the task needs of decision makers. These systems are poorly attuned to the requirements of dynamic new operational scenarios. Too often, decision makers find themselves hunting for, and manually integrating task-relevant mission information through the use of ad hoc tools, such as note pads, white boards, spreadsheets, PowerPoint, etc. [3,4], which are inherently fragile and devoid of the dynamic context needed to rapidly re-plan a mission in response to modifications to either top-down operational objectives or bottom-up tactical constraints. The result is often sub-optimal, reactive decision making where the combat center is constrained when reacting to unexpected or uncertain situations (i.e. changing context). What is needed are consistent and coherent supervisory control schemes for anticipatory automation including supporting decision support and associated OMIs that are: flexible, task & mission context-sensitive, and enablers for proactive decision making. The key to addressing these needs is to quickly provide shared understanding across the echelons of command for the plan and its various contingencies, how it is unfolding based on operational metrics, and proposed modifications to maintain mission objectives, i.e. ensuring there is proactively shared context. The last 30 years have seen a revolution in our understanding of human decision making, as recognized by the award of Nobel prizes for decision science [5-9]. The properties and processing styles of two systems of judgment and decision making have been identified, operationally demonstrated and widely accepted the fast, heuristic"System 1"and the slow, deliberate"System 2"[6]. The negative consequences of time-pressured decision making with System 1 decision making have been well established [5,6]. Further, in applied science, there have been advances in understanding how to effectively employ automation and how to make it simple and transparent enough to harness for improved end user decision making [10, 11]. This STTR topic seeks to advance and demonstrate the systematic application of these findings with a specific focus on Operational decision making under stress to allow more rapid re-planning and execution, which has been referred to as adaptive planning or dynamic operations.. Despite scientific advances in the application of cognitive decision making, on the one hand, and in integrating automation, on the other, there has been a singular failure to leverage and apply this work to military decision making in any principled, sustained and coherent fashion. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is interested in applying the wealth of decision making science and transitioning it for the Navy, specifically to improve warfighter decision making. Rather than creating a system specific decision aids for a particular military application, ONR is interested in the creation of an extensible"design schema"for operational / tactical decision support systems. A consistent set of design guidelines should be established to influence the development of an array of decision aids tailored to various warfare domains, yet possessing a consistent design approach. Such consistency is particularly timely at a time of budgetary pressure to facilitate efficient development and deployment of successful proactive decision support across military applications, minimize training, and increase end user adoption and successful employment. Consistency in decision support is also required to assists staffs in merging individual warfare area plans and their status into an integrated operational plan within and across echelons. The schema should leverage and apply advances in cognitive decision making research to ensure the system meshes with, and addresses the needs of, agile decision makers appropriate to the task and context at hand. Developing the requirements for these schemas and demonstrating their utility in the context of an example undersea warfare decision making task is desirable but one-of-a-kind, non-extensible custom solutions will not be considered responsive to this topic. PHASE I: 1. Analyze the information and context representation requirements of a cognitively challenging, dynamic operationally relevant decision making tasks that may be supported by automation. 2. Identify and apply suitable cognitive decision making and supervisory control research to identify the requirements for a decision support schema at the operational (staff) and/or tactical (platform) levels. 3. Propose notional elements for an extensible decision support design schema and mechanisms by which these elements might be dynamically adapted to support mission execution and re-planning tasks. 4. Design and prototype a basic proof-of-concept decision support system that demonstrates improved speed of command required to perform re-planning. Phase I deliverables should include a Final Phase I report that includes a detailed description of the approach taken and results obtained in Tasks 1-4 as well as a detailed approach for Phase II. PHASE II: 1. Mature, demonstrate, and refine a concept prototype illustrating the decision support concept. 2. Validate the decision support concept and quantify its impact on decision making tasks with controlled human performance study with dynamically changing mission / task requirements with empirical, user-based performance data. 3. Codify the decision support concept in a schema, or template, for application to an array of an array of warfare command decisions. 4. Demonstrate that the schema can accommodate a variety of different decision making tasks. 5. Develop a transition strategy for insertion of the technology developed into a US Navy Program of Record (e.g. BYG-1, GCCS-M) or a commercially developed system. Phase II deliverables should include a Final Phase II report that includes a detailed description of the approach taken and results obtained in Tasks 1-5. PHASE III: Tailor, transition, test and deliver system to an identified DoD program of record (POR) through an appropriate advanced development funded process and/or commercial operational setting. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The development of Proactive decision support technologies, particularly as a generic concept designed to be rapidly re-configured to address different decision making tasks will create a significant competitive advantage for architecting and deploying future decision support systems. We anticipate the proposed technologies could be a significant benefit to: air traffic control systems; emergency management systems; as well as the managing of complex, dynamic, highly autonomous systems. REFERENCES: 1. Commander, Submarine Forces. (July, 2011). Design for Undersea Warfare. Washington, DC. 2. Submarine Tactical Requirements Group. (April, 2011). Prioritized focus areas. Norfolk, VA. 3. Kirschenbaum, S.S. (2001). Submarine decision making. In E. Salas & G. Klein (Eds.), Linking expertise and naturalistic decision making. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates. 4. Dominguez, C., Long, W.G., Miller, T.E., & Wiggins, S.L. (2007). Design Directions for Support of Submarine Commanding Officer Decision Making. Klein Associates Technical Report, Deerborn, OH. 5. Kahneman, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: A perspective on intuitive judgment and choice. In T. Frangsmyr (Ed.), Les Prix Nobel 2002. Stockholm, Sweden. 6. Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645665. 7. Gigerenzer, G., & Brighton, B. (2009). Homo Heuristicus: Why biased minds make better inferences. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 1007-143. 8. Hollnagel E (1993). Human reliability analysis: context and control. Academic Press, London 9. Feigh, K.M. (2010). Incorporating multiple patterns of activity into the design of cognitive work support systems. Cognitive Technology & Work. 10. Parasuraman, R., Sheridan, T. B., & Wickens, C. D. (2000). A model of types and levels of human interaction with automation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A: Systems and Humans, 30, 286297. 11. St. John, M., Smallman, H.S., Manes, D.I., Feher, B.A., and Morrison, J.G. (2005). Heuristic automation for decluttering tactical displays. Human Factors, 47, 509-525.

N13A-T021: Body-worn sensors for monitoring warrior physical and mental state
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop body-worn non-invasive and non-intrusive technologies to monitor the"state-of-the-warrior". DESCRIPTION: Technologies that enable human state monitoring (physical and mental) tend to be rigid and cumbersome. They oftentimes fail when mounted on the body or they require research lab or clinical settings in which to operate. What is needed is technology that is highly form-fitting, and doesn"t interfere with Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and gear. This technology must not irritate or add additional burdens (e.g. weight) to the individual being monitored. The ideal technology is a body-worn device (e.g. tattoo). In addition to the hardware technology, a software framework is needed to analyze and describe findings in a user friendly manner to the individuals. The hardware technology developed must be able to monitor and capture data for physiological signals such as blood pressure, EMG, EKG, EEG, pulse oximetry, and temperature. It must also have basic abilities to amplify, and filter each of these modalities simultaneously. The technology developed must be able to support (i) data collection over hours and, more preferably, over days; (ii) and the capability to download or transmit wireless to a handheld device. The software technology must integrate data across the sensors and provide a cross space/time/modality perspective of the dynamics of the individual"s state and how they co-vary with context and/or pathology. These methods must be tightly integrated to exploit the physiology, spatial placement, and the physics of each modality to succinctly describe the dynamics of the individual state. Demonstration of a capability to extract energy in part from the body"s kinematics or temperature gradients will be particularly noteworthy. Methods that use a detailed understanding of the body"s physiology to optimize the sensor design, sensor placement, and to guide the signal processing will be particularly noteworthy. PHASE I: Determine the technical feasibility for a system that can extract one or more of the following signals in a reliable manner: ECG, EEG, EMG, skin temperature. PHASE II: Design and develop a proof-of-concept prototype system that can extract one or more of the following signals in a reliable manner: ECG, EEG, EMG, skin temperature. Also, demonstrate the reliability over an extended period of time (24-48 hours). Further demonstrate reliable signal capture over time with multiple devices on multiple participants, and demonstrate how these signals compare with more traditional non-portable signal acquisition strategies. Demonstrate that the signals reliably correlate with the physiological and cognitive state (stressed, fatigued) of the human participant as determined by traditional psychomotor tests. Clarify both commercial civilian and military applications, and draft notional business plans for each. PHASE III: Conduct field testing of the sensor and signal processing technology in both military and commercial (e.g., medical) environments. Show low-rate production feasibility. Demonstrate utility to operational military unit leadership, as a way to characterize individual and unit readiness. Identify and demonstrate application to closed-loop training settings. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Commercial extensions of this technology include: 1) Brain-computer interfaces for consumer electronics; 2) Athlete performance monitoring (health, exercise, nutrition); and 3) Continuous Health Monitoring. REFERENCES: 1. D. H. Kim, et al.,"Epidermal Electronics", Science 333, 838 (2011) 2. C. A. Hewitt, et al,"Multilayered Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composite Based Thermoelectric Fabrics", Nano Letters (2012).

N13A-T022: Development of Next-Generation Composite Flywheel Design for Shock and Vibration Tolerant, High Density Rotating Energy Storage
Description:

OBJECTIVE: To explore and develop a next generation composite material designs for high density flywheel energy storage, suitable for high shock and vibration Navy/USMC applications. DESCRIPTION: High rotational speed energy storage systems (high speed flywheels) have the potential for substantial energy density improvements as compared to common designs utilizing common materials (high performance metals). A key aspect of this improvement in density is the ability to have sufficient strength to withstand the rotational forces associated with operating to the 100k RPM level or above. Composites are ideal materials for this application because of their ability to provide the strength required for large amounts of energy stored at high speeds, while maintaining light weight. Reduced mass of spinning components aides in overall design by reducing the requirements on bearing assemblies, as well as reduced inertial loading stresses at high rotational speeds. High strength is needed to achieve maximum rotational speed. Therefore, advanced composite rotors enable the storage of greater amounts of energy on a per unit weight or volume basis, in comparison with other materials. Additionally, there is the potential for greater levels of safety due to burst and fracture characteristics of composite materials versus metallic wheels and chemical batteries. To improve performance envelope and increase capabilities of rotating storage, the U.S. Navy is interested in developing and characterizing high strength advanced composite wheel designs, scalable for various storage applications (power and energy applications) at elevated temperatures (temperature range of 40-140F). This materials approach must have lightweight, resilient characteristics which can be supported across a wide temperature range and over a long period of lifetime. When designed with a bearing system and support equipment ruggedized for shipboard application, the ability to retain safety and performance over long duration at speeds in the ca. 100K RPM range is essential to transitioning higher density rotating storage shipboard. Other properties of interest include the thermal and mechanical fatigue under service loading, and benign failure modes which include shredding and breakup into small pieces that will not have sufficient force to damage other equipment. These materials should enable both retrofit to existing flywheel and bearing designs, as well as new approaches to more compact and improved designs. The Navy will only fund proposals that are innovative address R & D and involve technical risk. Metrics for complete system (including flywheel system, containment and support equipment):>350W/L>80Wh/L>60kW/flywheel assembly 5-50 second full charge time 5-500 second full discharge time PHASE I: Provide an initial development effort that demonstrates scientific merit and capabilities of the proposed composite materials for application in a modular, high speed rotating storage application. Laboratory scale specimens should be fabricated and characterized thermally and mechanically. These composite material characteristics should be applied to notional flywheel energy storage system designs to determine the benefit and energy density of a notional flywheel system. PHASE II: Fabricate and characterize prototype composite wheel to support a demonstration flywheel design capable of>60kW output for>10 minutes, with a peak power capability of>120kW for>4 minutes. The system design should account for operation at the upper range of temperature, and provide the capability to last for 60000 hours of online use and support 1000 cycles. PHASE III: Produce flywheel energy storage system to support shipboard energy storage requirements as well as other applications where chemical batteries are not feasible and/or long shelf life is critical. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Successful development of high strength, next-generation flywheel materials for compact, modular energy storage will have application anywhere that such a requirement is necessary. Examples of locations where reduced mass and size are critical include mobility applications where volume is a major premium, and renewable energy systems, where size-efficient co-location of storage with the main converters have the potential to reduce cost and simplify transient operation. Integration of rotational energy storage is desirable any place where a rotational transfer of power is utilized, as the storage system may be clutched and/or geared in to provide additional power transfer to or from the system as needed. REFERENCES: 1. Portnov, G. G., and Bakis, C. E.;"Estimation of Limit Strains in Disk-Type Flywheels Made of a Compliant Elastomeric Matrix Composite Undergoing Radial Creep,"Mechanics of Composite Materials, 36:87-94 (2000). 2. Kelsall, D.R.;"Pulsed power provision by high speed composite flywheel,"Pulsed Power 2000 (Digest No. 2000/053), IEEE Symposium, pp.16/1-16/5, 2000. 3. Hebner, R.; Beno, J.; Walls, A.;"Flywheel batteries come around again,"Spectrum, IEEE , vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 46-51, Apr 2002

N13A-T023: Solid-State Fundamental Mode Green Laser for Ocean Mine Detection
Description:

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop and demonstrate a solid-state laser with the primary fundamental lasing output in the wavelength range of 470-540 nanometers. This would greatly enhance laser output efficiency. The selected frequency range enables the penetration of water which is required for airborne and underwater sensors being developed to detect mines in the ocean environment. DESCRIPTION: The sensors under development for mine hunting are designed to be payloads on small tactical unmanned vehicles (TUAV) or manned platforms with limited space and power. Therefore size, weight, and power (SWaP) consumption are critical considerations. The solid-state lasers currently available achieve the desired"green"output wavelength by using an approach called"frequency doubling"which results in a conversion loss of about 50% leaving most systems with wall plug efficiencies of only 3 to 5%. The use of a solid-state laser with the primary fundamental lasing output in the desired wavelength (470-540 nanometers) should enhance laser output efficiency by avoiding these losses. The laser system could be smaller, lighter, consume less power, and have reduced heat load handling requirements. PHASE I: Define and develop a concept for a pulsed laser capable of achieving a fundamental output in the wavelength range of 470-540 nanometers. The technology must be scalable to operate at power levels in the order of 50 Watts with repetition rates of 30-400 Hertz. The concept should require minimal thermal conditioning and minimize the use of components requiring high-precision temperature control. PHASE II: Produce prototype hardware based on the Phase I work to demonstrate and validate a pulsed laser capable of achieving a fundamental output in the wavelength range of 470-540 nanometers under test conditions of at least 1 Watt of output power. An in-depth analysis should demonstrate how higher output power levels would be accomplished and the impact on size, weight, and power consumption. PHASE III: The successful design, development, and demonstration of a solid-state laser having the primary optical output in the specified wavelength has strong potential to be flight tested in SHD-FY12-04 before transitioning into the COBRA (Block II / Block III), ALMDS, and AQS-20 programs of record. A SECRET clearance may be required for Phase III. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: SHOALS system used to map bathymetry, and any other systems that penetrate water. REFERENCES: 1. ALMDS Laser System, Proc. SPIE 4968, 163 (2003); Kushina, Heberle, Hope, Hall (Cutting Edge Optronics, Inc.); Calmes (Arete) 2. High-Power heat-insensitive resonator for a diode-side-pumped ND:Y3AL5O12 on high-gray-tracking-resistivity KTiOPO4 solid-state green laser. Opt. Eng 47, 084201 (Aug 06, 2008); Xiu Li, Xiu-yan Chen, Hao-wei Chen, Yao Hou, Si-yuan Wang, Zhao-yu Ren, and Jin-tao Bai

N13A-T024: Situational Awareness as a Man-Machine Map Reduce Job
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Design and implement a mixed initiative (man-machine) distributed fusion capability that allows lower level fusion (entity/event recognition, disambiguation) inferences to be reasoned over in order to increase the relevance and accuracy of higher order fusion services (behavior prediction) that are coupled to warfighter decision tools. The objective will require the development of a distributed cloud based mixed initiative (man, machine) workflow manager. DESCRIPTION: Solutions and algorithms developed to facilitate large data management, while successful in the acquisition of data, have been constrained by problems of human-system integration as the solutions developed to support military decisions remain based on an information fusion model that assumes that if a person understood the physical space they could make the"right"decision. However this assumption should be challenged as it may not possible to fully understand the physical space as data will be"dirty", inconsistent, or undiscoverable. The goal of the topic is to understand how to place human intuition back into a process that translates large data sets into actionable situational understanding. An offeror is expected to mature a set of map reduce applications that continuously reason about possible future states/paths in a way that allows warfighters to validate both the state/path conclusion as well as the inference confidence level. The system should allow the human user to adjust confidence levels attributed to lower level inferences (the presence of a unique entity or behavior) before higher level fusion applications (intent prediction) use the lower level inference to support a decision aide. The required system must assume that large data will be held at distributed locations throughout a battlespace and the movement of data across data links will not always be possible. The goal of the system will be a more accurate decision tool that has leveraged both automated data analysis as well as human intuition at multiple processing/reasoning steps. Phase 1 performers may work with synthetic data video and text based data sources. The Hadoop framework should be utilized. The specific challenges of this topic include: 1) Maturing a set of related map reduce jobs that can act on distributed stored images/imagery and unstructured text to find data that supports a prediction of a specific future state/path 2) Development of collaboration environment that allows each entity/behavior recognition event to be reviewed by a human who can increase or decrease confidence levels based on knowledge about data conflicts, sources or missing data 3) Development of a distributed higher level fusion application that translate human vetted lower level information about entities to predictions about higher level future paths (behavior intent) 4) Development of a human-machine collaboration application that allows humans to raise or lower confidences in a future behavior intent predictions based on presented evidence 5) Demonstration that a fusion system build on man-machine collaboration will provide a more accurate input to supported decision tools. Research in the areas of social and cognitive science, mathematics, computer science, information theory, decision science, operations research as well as multidisciplinary areas that may prove promising are of interest. In addition to the application of research methods and approaches, it is important to evaluate the impact of these efforts areas with regards to the way they change how data is collected, processed, or shared to positively impact decisions. The OSD is interested in innovative R & D that involves technical risk. Proposed work should have technical and scientific merit. Creative solutions are encouraged. PHASE I: Complete a plan and detailed approach for developing a system that enables distributed applications to reason about possible future states using information from large cloud based data, allows human examination of the evidence behind lower level inferences and then supports higher level reasoning using the same methodology. Identify the critical technology issues that must be overcome to achieve success. Technical work should focus on the reduction of key risk areas. For a constrained set of possible entity/behavior states and behavior/intent states, using distributed data stores, demonstrate that phase 1 risk reduction work has shown that a full implementation of the approach is technically tractable. Prepare a revised research plan for Phase 2 that addresses critical issues. PHASE II: Produce a prototype system that is capable of improving the effectiveness of machine supported decision aids by allowing human markup of all inference supporting evidence. The prototype system should assemble information by automated means, perform automated reasoning about futures, accept human assessment, provide performance metrics and offer visualization appropriate to a warfighter. Produce a prototype distributed fusion service that can produce accurate input to a warfighter decision support system even when some data is incomplete, conflicting or wrong. The system should be able to process large distributed and varied data sources. The prototype should enable a demonstration of the capability to be conducted using relevant data sources, some of which may be classified. The prototype should be capable of operating in a real time mode. Identify appropriate test performance dependent variables and make trade-off studies. The prototype should be relevant to both DoD and commercial use cases. PHASE III: Produce a system capable of deployment in an operational setting. The work should focus on a specific user environment intended for product transition. Test the system in an operational setting in a stand-alone mode and as a component in a cloud processing architecture. The work should work towards a transition to program of record, military organization or commercial product. The system should adhere to open standards and open software where feasible. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: News organizations would greatly benefit from an ability to research a story using both machine data mining and analysis and human intuition, enabled by a mixed initiative system. REFERENCES: 1. Apache Software Foundation. ActiveMQ. 9/22/2010 http://activemq.apache.org 2. Apache Hadoop: http://hadoop.apache.org/ 3. Cloud computing, Wikipedia 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing 4. Open Networking Foundation formed to Speed Network Innovation, March 21, 2011 http://www.openflow.org/wp/2011/03/open-networking-foundation-formed-to-... 5. Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling (Path Analysis): http://www.sgim.org/userfiles/file/AMHandouts/AM05/handouts/pa08.pdf 6. Mixed Initiative Interaction: http://wwwhome.cs.utwente.nl/~conagent/Frank%20van%20Es/References/Hea99...

N13A-T025: Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based High Efficiency Switch/Transistor for L-Band RF Power Amplifier Applications
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop a Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based high efficiency switch/transistor and demonstrate a high efficiency (>90% power added efficiency) solid state RF Power amplifier for the replacement of L-band Radar vacuum electronic (VE) tube sources. DESCRIPTION: Current Navy L-band systems utilize vacuum electronic (VE) sources for high power RF generation. Solid State power amplifiers (SSPA), through power combining, are being considered as replacements for VE sources. Highly efficient, high power SSPA's are required in order to reach improved SWaP and goals that justify the acquisition of replacement sources for the current mature VE sources. The challenge for a SSPA's is to achieve very high electrical to RF conversion efficiencies and simultaneously high output power. The device requirements are a high breakdown voltage (>1000 V) with low on-resistance to develop SSPA's that operate at high RF voltages, minimizing device periphery and output capacitance when compared to current GaN microwave devices, or Silicon and GaAs devices. This enables high efficiency SSPA's that exploit concepts such as switch-mode (Class-D,E,F) operation. A high voltage, fast switching C- to X-band device is required. Amplifiers that achieve 100 W output and greater than 90% efficiency at 1 GHz with 10% bandwidths are desired for current VE replacement concepts. PHASE I: Provide an initial development effort that demonstrates scientific merit and feasibility of an approach to achieving a high efficiency device for switch-mode RF amplifiers at 1 GHz. The effort will demonstrate a device with a breakdown voltage greater than 1000 V, and operation at 300 volts. Measured device frequency performance shall be sufficient for the realization of various high efficiency RF amplifier topologies. Device geometry should provide scalability in operating current either through periphery or area in order to enable high net output power in an RF amplifier. Device operating parameters should be comparable to known acceptable conditions for reliable Gallium Nitride devices PHASE II: Demonstrate a 1 GHz RF amplifier with 10% bandwidth, with 100 W output power and 90% power added efficiency, based on the Phase I device. The amplifier will be operating at a minimum supply voltage of 300 Volts. Based on the device characteristics, develop models and predict amplifier maximum operating capabilities assuming device scaling in operating current to maximize amplifier output power while maintaining greater than 90% PAE and 10% bandwidth at 300 volt operation. PHASE III: Demonstrate the scaled device concepts identified in Phase II that the maximize RF amplifier output power while achieving a minimum of 90% PAE and 10% bandwidth. Design and demonstrate the RF amplifier in a form factor that minimizes cost, size and weight. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Commercial radar and communications transmitters such as cellular base stations would benefit with minor design variations of the device developed in this program to accommodate frequency differences. REFERENCES: 1. A 97.8% Efficient GaN HEMT Boost Converter With 300-W Output Power at 1 MHz, Yifeng Wu; Jacob-Mitos, M.; Moore, M.L.; Heikman, S., IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 29, No. 8, Aug. 2008 Page(s):824 826. 2. 3000-V 4.3-milli-Ohm-cm-squared InAlN/GaN MOSHEMTs With AlGaN Back Barrier, Hyung-Seok Lee; Piedra, D.; Min Sun; Xiang Gao; Shiping Guo; T. Palacios, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 33, No. 7, July 2012 Page(s): 982 - 984

N13A-T026: Improving the Physics of Applied Reverberation Models
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Produce higher fidelity acoustic reverberation solutions for complex shallow and deep water environments by incorporating important physical effects into applied Navy models/codes used in mission planning tools, TDAs and school house training. DESCRIPTION: Modeling acoustic propagation and boundary scattering in complex shallow water environments requires numerical modeling. Research level models incorporate high fidelity physics (e.g., surface, bottom and sub-bottom roughness, bottom and volume discrete scatterers) at the cost of slow processing speeds. Current applied codes, that need several orders of magnitude increases in processing speeds relative to research codes, increase speed by both using ray (GRAB/CASS) and energy flux (ASTRAL/ASPM) approximations and incorporating"clutter"as an extra step not based on fundamental scattering physics but on the desired character of the signature at the output of the signal processing algorithms. Recent advances in research modeling hold the promise of adding scattering physics to applied codes with minimal cost in processing speed. PHASE I: Identify treatment of physical phenomena within high fidelity reverberation codes that are mature enough and efficient enough to add to applied codes that use rays or energy flux as the basis of calculation. Identify steps required and/or perform initial integration, of one or more of the physical phenomena identified, into ray and energy flux based codes, demonstrate increased fidelity in those codes and develop processing speed and memory utilization metrics. PHASE II: Complete integration of physical phenomena identified in Phase I into ray and energy flux based codes and perform initial validation and verification studies of the updated codes and document the expanded applications and increased fidelity of the new models. Document the associated mathematical development and implementation in technical reports. Include details on processing speed and memory utilization with and without these increases in fidelity. PHASE III: A successful development will be directly applicable to current Navy applied codes (GRAB/CASS, ASTRAL/ASPM). The increases in fidelity developed in Phase I and II will be integrated into those codes. Validation and verification of new versions of GRAB/CASS and ASTRAL/ASPM will be carried out via the OAML process. Phase III may require security clearance for those involved. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The specific application would have primary application in the military. There is some potential for the technology to spin off to scientific and fisheries applications that involve detection of fish or marine mammals. REFERENCES: 1.H. Weinberg, R. Keenan,"Gaussian ray bundles for modeling high-frequency propagation loss under shallow water conditions,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am, Vol. 100, pp. 1421-1431 (1996). 2. R. Keenan,"An Introduction to GRAB Eigenrays and CASS Reverberation and Signal Excess,"OCEANS 2000 MTS/IEEE Conference Proceedings, Providence, RI, Sept. 11-14, 2000. 3. J. X. Zhou,"The analytical method of angular power spectrum, range and depth structure of echo-reverberation ratio in shallow water sound field,"J. Med. Lab Technol., Vol. 5, pp. 86-99 (1980). 4. C. W. Holland,"Propagation in a waveguide with range-dependent seabed properties,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am, Vol. 128, pp. 2596-2609 (2010).

N13A-T027: Wide Spectral Band Laser Threat Sensor
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Develop a large dynamic range passive sensor capable of identifying and localizing laser sources over a wide spectral band from 500 nm to 11 um. DESCRIPTION: The broad use of lasers in military tracking systems as well as the developing use of high energy laser weapons on the battlefield poses a risk to US forces. Early detection of these threats allows for threat identification, asset protection and counter-methods. The broad spectral range and irradiance levels used within these systems complicates a robust sensing approach. Two primary challenges where existing sensors fall short are sufficient dynamic range and spectral range. New sensing methodologies are needed to meet these requirements accounting for the wide use of lasers from visible (down to 500 nm) out to long wave infrared (out to 11 um). The sensors should be capable of sensing irradiance levels from 1 mW/cm2 to 2 kW/cm2. The sensor must also have the ability to measure characteristics about the threat as well as determine the line of sight vector to the threat. Characteristics to help in threat identification include wavelength, pulse repetition frequency, and pulse width. Threat localization should provide accuracy to 1 degree or better with a near hemispherical field of regard. Sensor size, weight and power should be minimized for easy adaptation on unmanned air vehicles without significant impact. The sensor should also allow for integration into an aircraft, watercraft, or ground vehicle allowing for the sensor data to be conveyed to the vehicle system. PHASE I: Determine the feasibility of a sensor meeting the dynamic range, spectral range, and threat characterization measurements in a low SWaP package. Perform sensor architecture design and key optical and detector trades. PHASE II: Develop and test a prototype sensor. Perform lab testing to identify the performance capability. Perform a field demonstration showing capability against a number of simulated threats in a relevant environment. PHASE III: Upon success of Phase II, the company will support the Navy in transitioning the technology to target platforms where the sensor would be integrated into the vehicles for threat detection and countering mechanisms. Detector technology can additionally be leveraged into new wide band ISR applications. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The technology can be employed on commercial aircraft to identify, protect, and mitigate the use of commercial-grade lasers against pilots. Broad band sensor technologies can be used for commercial surveillance applications REFERENCES: 1."Full Spectral Imaging: A Revisited Approach to Remote Sensing", J. Bolton, http://fullspectralimaging.net/Documents/FSI-Paper.pdf 2."Lasers and Aviation Safety", Patrick Murphy, International Laser Display Association, Version 2.2, September 10, 2009, http://www.laserist.org/files/Lasers-and-aviation-safety_2pt2.pdf3."India Looks at Laser Weapons for Air and Missile Defense,"Jay Menon, Aviation Week, April 28, 2011. 4."Program Overview of AN/AVR-2B(V) Laser Detecting Set and Training Devices", Wayne Morton, AME/ASE Symposium, 14 Dec 05, http://65.18.194.107/~admin1/images/pdf/05_ASE/05ASE_WayneMorton.ppt. 5."Revealed: N Korea fires laser at U.S. Troops"Bill Gertz, THE WASHINGTON TIMES, May 13, 2003, http://www.gertzfile.com/gertzfile/article5.13.03.html

N13A-T028: Hybrid, Ultra-High-Speed, High Efficiency, Power Dense, Electronically Controlled Energy Conversion Unit for Ship Systems, Unmanned Vehicles, and Robotics Applications
Description:

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this topic is to push the speed limits of an ultra-high-speed energy conversion unit up to one million revolutions per minute (i.e. 1000 Krpm) with over 95% system efficiency utilizing advanced, high-speed power electronic switching technologies and control schemes. DESCRIPTION: The Navy is embarking on an aggressive Power and Energy Program and a Next Generation Integrated Power System (NGIPS) for application on both shore based facilities and future surface ships and underwater vehicles. With the addition of alternative power generation technologies and the need to increase energy security to shore facilities, the Navy will benefit from technology solutions that can cost-effectively move this power from fuel to end use. Limited by the shipboard space and weight allocated to power generation, distribution, and conversion equipment, the Navy requires innovative technology solutions that can cost-effectively increase power system density. The ultra-high-speed generator technology will provide building blocks that align with both these initiatives. The objective of this topic is to push the speed limits of an ultra-high-speed energy conversion unit up to one million revolutions per minute (i.e. 1000 Krpm) with over 95% system efficiency utilizing advanced, high-speed power electronic switching technologies and control schemes. The result would be a power-dense generator that is lighter and smaller. Challenges include the need for efficient, physics-based computational models in electromagnetics, structures, and thermodynamics of directly interacting, high-speed power electronic devices. The success of this topic would contribute to the on-going development of green energy applications using renewable energy sources. The key metrics for this effort are speed (1000 Krpm objective, 750 Krpm threshold) and power density (40 kW/kg objective, 30 kW/kg threshold). The Navy will only fund proposals that are innovative, address R & D, and involve technical risk. PHASE I: Perform a feasibility study and develop physics-based models in order to produce a generator design capable of meeting the metrics outlined above. PHASE II: Produce a bench-top demonstration of the generator. The design should be at TRL 3 or 4 at the end of this phase. PHASE III: Produce a prototype generator that is at TRL 5 or 6 and demonstrates performance in alignment with the metrics above. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The high speed generator has direct applications in power generation and transportation, making it broadly applicable to the commercial world. REFERENCES: 1. C. Peter Cho, B. K. Fussel, and J. Y. Hung,"A novel integrated electric motor/pump for underwater applications,"AIP Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 79, no. 8, April 1996. 2. C. P. Cho , B. Fussel, and J. Y. Hung,"Detent torque and axial force effects in a dual air-gap axial-field brushless motor,"IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 29, no. 6, Nov 1993, pp. 2416-2418. 3. C. Peter Cho, David R. Crecelius,"Vehicle alternator/generator trends toward next millennium", IEEE, IVEC Proc., Jan 1999. 4. William P. Krol, C. Peter Cho,"High energy density permanent magnetic motors for underwater systems", IEEE, AUV Conf., 1996.

N13A-T029: Light-weight One Atmosphere (1 ATM) Diving Suit
Description:

OBJECTIVE: Design and develop a light-weight, swimmable 1 ATM diving suit for use in seawater that is capable of withstanding pressures up to 1000 feet of seawater (fsw). DESCRIPTION: Deep sea diving may induce multiple adverse effects on the human body. These hazards include acute effects such as nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity (convulsions, pulmonary dysfunction/injury), and high pressure nervous syndrome while working at depth; arterial gas embolism and decompression illness during or following ascent; and potential chronic conditions (osteobaric necrosis) following repeated deep sea exposures. Current mitigations for these effects require expensive gas mixtures and decompression schedules that often limit the amount of time to work at bottom, followed by hours of decompression obligation during ascent. The use of a one atmosphere (1 ATM) suit would enable a diver to work at extreme depths without being exposed to these physiological hazards and logistical constraints. However, current 1 ATM suits are burdensome systems, weighing in excess of 11,000 lbs. that essentially take the form of a piloted submersible. This size and cumbersome configuration severely constrains its use. A light-weight suit (less than 400 lbs.) could enable a diver to use his own legs as propulsion (with fins) and enable a greater variety of compatible platforms, including small boats. This technology would provide a robust 1000 fsw diving capability for expeditionary diving and salvage forces; retrieval of high value material that would require dexterity and/or judgment not found in a remotely operated vehicle, rapid reconnaissance and survey of a work site prior to mobilization and deployment of a large mixed-gas or saturation system, and expanded operational capacity in austere environments that prohibit the deployment and logistic support of a large mixed-gas or saturation system. PHASE I: Determine material and construction technologies required to design and produce a swimmable 1 ATM suit with a 1000 fsw working depth. Produce suit designs with optimal diver ventilation, flexibility, and mobility for a broad range of missions, including potential technology/capability trade-offs. PHASE II: Construct a physical prototype of the 1 ATM suit to determine flexibility, mobility and ability to withstand pressure at depth, and determine a path to certify the 1 ATM suit for military use. PHASE III: Construct production unit suitable for certification by the Supervisor of Salvage and Diving (NAVSEA 00C). PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: National and international commercial diving companies would benefit from this technology. REFERENCES: 1. Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command. Diving Manual, SS521-AJ-PRO-010 Rev 6 CHG A, SS521-AG-PRO-010 0910-LP-106-0957: NAVSEA, 2011. http://www.supsalv.org/pdf/Dive%20Manual%20Rev%206%20with%20Chg%20A.pdf. 2. Carter, RC (1976). Evaluation of JIM: A One-Atmosphere Diving Suit. US Naval Experimental Diving Unit Technical Report NEDU-05-76. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4790. 3. Curley MD & Bachrach, AJ (September 1982). Operator performance in the one-atmosphere diving system JIM in water at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Undersea Biomed Res, 9(3): 20312. PMID 7135632. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2926. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 4. Nuytten, P. (1998). Life support in small one-atmosphere underwater work systems. Life Support Biosph Sci, 5(3):313-7. 5. Bissett, T. & Viau, G. Atmospheric diving as an alternative technology for platform inspections. Presented at Underwater Intervention (February, 2003): New Orleans.