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Company Information:

Company Name:
ALDERON BIOSCIENCES, INC.
Address:
120 Turner Street
Beaufort, NC 28516-
Phone:
N/A
URL:
N/A
EIN:
156145817
DUNS:
137313813
Number of Employees:
N/A
Woman-Owned?:
No
Minority-Owned?:
No
HUBZone-Owned?:
No

Commercialization:

Has been acquired/merged with?:
N/A
Has had Spin-off?:
N/A
Has Had IPO?:
N/A
Year of IPO:
N/A
Has Patents?:
N/A
Number of Patents:
N/A
Total Sales to Date $:
$ 0.00
Total Investment to Date $
$ 0.00
POC Title:
N/A
POC Name:
N/A
POC Phone:
N/A
POC Email:
N/A
Narrative:
N/A

Award Totals:

Program/Phase Award Amount ($) Number of Awards
SBIR Phase I $4,489,859.00 40
SBIR Phase II $12,124,409.00 20

Award List:

THE TRANSFER OF FOCUS OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING FROM MICROBES AND PLANTS TO HIGHER VERTEBRATES.

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1983 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$35,000.00
Agency:
NSF
Principal Investigator:
Robert j. rozof , PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR
Abstract:
To our initial understand of normal and abnormal physiology,developmental biology and cellular biology than has the frog. dating from the early 1930's, only the mouse has challenged the position of the frog. in recent years contributions using frogs have been seriously impeded because of the lack of… More

CARRAGEENAN-STABILIZED COLLOIDAL GOLD BIOSENSOR ELECTRODES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1987 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Barbara S Kitchell Phd
Abstract:
N/a

CARRAGEENAN-STABILIZED COLLOIDAL GOLD BIOSENSOR ELECTRODES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1989 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$500,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Barbara S Kitchell Phd
Abstract:
A growing need exists for new and improved second-generationelectrochemical biosensors capable of reliably detecting, monitoring, and analyzing a variety of chemical and biological compounds in the environment, in process streams,and in body fluids. such sensors would find extensive applications in… More

Phase separated enzyme inhibitor electrode for mercury compounds

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1991 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Junguo Zhao Phd , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
N/a

Phase separated enzyme inhibitor electrode for mercury compounds

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$563,392.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Junguo Zhao Phd , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
Mercury is a highly toxic material that occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. because of its widespread industrial use the whole population is exposed to mercury compounds everyday. there is a need for a fast, easy to use, inexpensive, sensitive method for the detection of mercury to reduce… More

Electro-Immunosensor for Regulating/Achieving Fertility

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
N/a

Electro-immunosensor to Detect Cocaine & THC Metabolite

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
N/a

Electro Immunsensor to Detect Agricultural Chemicals

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1992 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
USDA
Principal Investigator:
Dr John P O'daly
Abstract:
N/a

IMMOBILIZED OXIDO-REDUCTASE ENZYMES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1993 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
N/a

IMMOBILIZED OXIDO-REDUCTASE ENZYMES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1993 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$480,989.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
N/a

Electro-Immunosensor for Regulating/Achieving Fertility

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$471,993.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
N/a

AN ADVANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYTICAL MEASUREMENT OF THREE CHEMICAL SPECIES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$75,000.00
Agency:
DOE
Principal Investigator:
Dr Marek Wojciechowski
Abstract:
N/a

ELECTRON SEMICONDUCTOR (EBS) DEVICES TRAVELING WAVE TUBE (TWT) DIAMOND EMITTERS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$50,000.00
Agency:
USDA
Principal Investigator:
Dr. John P. O'Daly , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
N/a

Electro-immunosensor to Detect Cocaine & THC Metabolite

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$492,681.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
N/a

Electro Immunsensor to Detect Agricultural Chemicals

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1994 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$250,000.00
Agency:
USDA
Principal Investigator:
Dr John P O'daly
Abstract:
N/a

AN ADVANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYTICAL MEASUREMENT OF THREE CHEMICAL SPECIES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1995 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$750,000.00
Agency:
DOE
Principal Investigator:
Dr Marek Wojciechowski
Abstract:
The requirements of complex sample monitoring present a growing need for a new generation of highly specific enzyme eletrodes with multi-analyte, multi-signal capability. this project's objective is to establish the feasibility of novel electrochemical sensors based on the combination of… More

Rapid In Vitro Diagnostic Sensor to Detect and Identify Interferon- alpha in Patient Fluid Samples

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1995 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$70,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / NAVY
Principal Investigator:
John P. O'daly, Ph.d.
Abstract:
At this time it is very difficult to distinguish viral infections from bacterial infections. Published results suggest that some subtypes of interferon-alpha (INF-a) are present in viral infections and are not detected in bacterial infections but no clinically useful assay for this potential marker… More

Biosensor for High Density Lipoproteins in Whole Blood

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1995 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$68,067.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Marek Wojciechowski
Abstract:
The requirements of complex sample monitoring present a growing need for a new generation of highlyenzyme electrodes that operate in non-processed or raw samples and have multi-analyte capability. This to establish the feasibility of novel colloidal gold/immobilized enzyme based raw… More

ELECTRON SEMICONDUCTOR (EBS) DEVICES TRAVELING WAVE TUBE (TWT) DIAMOND EMITTERS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1995 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$203,000.00
Agency:
USDA
Principal Investigator:
Dr. John P. O'Daly , Principal Investigator
Abstract:
N/a

Hand-Held DNA Biosensor to Detect Toxins

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1995 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens, Phd
Abstract:
N/a

Disposable Electrodes for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Analysis of Heavy Metals

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1995 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$65,000.00
Agency:
NSF
Principal Investigator:
Robert Henkens
Abstract:
N/a

Hand-Held DNA Biosensor to Detect Toxins

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1996 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$734,256.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens, Phd
Abstract:
There are many cases where detection of the presence of a DNA or RNA sequence in a sample can rapidly and unambiguously identify bacterial and viral bioagents of concern or be used in the diagnosis of both inherited and infectious diseases. Traditional DNA/RNA analysis methods are not applicable… More

Disposable Electrodes for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Analysis of Heavy Metals

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1996 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$300,000.00
Agency:
NSF
Principal Investigator:
Robert Henkens
Abstract:
N/a

Gene-Probe Electrodes to Detect Enterically-Transmitted RNA Virus Pathogens

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1997 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Dr. Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
Enterically transmitted pathogens cause far more illness than toxicants such as lead, mercury, pesticides, and all other forms of chemical contamination. The world has become increasingly vulnerable to the spread of old and flew infectious organisms and water-borne pathogens as illustrated by… More

DNA PROBES FOR DETECTION OF GENE DISORDERS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1997 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Henkens, robert w
Abstract:
N/a

ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION OF ALTERED GENE SEQUENCES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1997 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Henkens, robert w
Abstract:
N/a

Gene-Probe Electrodes to Detect Enterically-Transmitted RNA Virus Pathogens

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1998 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$750,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Dr. Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
Enterically transmitted pathogens cause far more illness than toxicants such as lead, mercury, pesticides, and all other forms of chemical contamination. The world has become increasingly vulnerable to the spread of old and flew infectious organisms and water-borne pathogens as illustrated by… More

RAPID MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE FOR SEPSIS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1998 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Henkens, Robert W
Abstract:
N/a

ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION OF ALTERED GENE SEQUENCES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1998 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$760,191.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Henkens, robert w
Abstract:
N/a

DNA PROBES FOR DETECTION OF GENE DISORDERS

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1998 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$750,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Henkens, robert w
Abstract:
N/a

POINT OF CARE DIAGNOSTIC FOR NEONATAL BLOOD GLUCOSE

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1999 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$99,998.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
Not Available The LCPK is a new Army guided missile program based on the venerable 2.75 unguided rocket. Although the guidance scheme is still up in the air, issues with rate sensors on other programs have sparked this SBIR topic. We tell the story of the Predator/MPIM rate sensor issues, analyze… More

Pseudo-Target Amplification (PTA) for Nucleic Acid Analysis

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1999 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
NSF
Principal Investigator:
Robert Henkens
Abstract:
N/a

N/A

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1999 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert Henkens
Abstract:
Not Available Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a real-time, autonomous, self-adjustable, and robust path intercept trajectory algorithm to guide pilots back to a predefined path. The proposed Autonomous Flight Path Maintainer (AFPM) is based on the POC's proprietary parallel… More

NOVEL MOLECULAR ASSAYS FOR PFIESTERIA AND OTHER MICROBES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1999 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Marek Wojciechowski
Abstract:
Not Available Latch-up in a large digital system can be isolated to a small portion of the total die area. In success cases, the increase in current drawn from the supply is not distinguishable from the much larger average current consumed by normal operation. This makes it difficult to detect… More

NEW SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM SCORING SYSTEM

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1999 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$99,436.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
Not Available In order to be used in future laser radar seekers the cost of current diode pumped solid state lasers must be reduced and the power must be scaled up. Further such 1-micron lasers must be compatible with efficient nonlinear optical conversion to eyesafe wavelengths. The proposed… More

Hand-Held, Battery-Operated Device for Rapid Gene Detection of Multiple Biological Agents

Award Year / Program / Phase:
1999 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$70,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Robert Henkens
Abstract:
Not Available A Piezoelectric Spherical Pointing System (PSPS) is proposed for electric microsatellite thrusters. This two-axis pointing system uses a single spherical shell that allows direct bearing support, actuation, and position measurement from a single spherical surface. When compared to a… More

N/A

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2000 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$150,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
Not Available Arkansas Microelectronics Development Corporation (AMDC) proposes to develop high density multichip module (MCM) substrates with integrated capacitors. This project will target NASA's goals involving decreased payload weight and volume and increased funct

N/A

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2000 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
N/a

N/A

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2000 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$99,994.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
N/a

Hand-Held, Battery-Operated Device for Rapid Gene Detection of Multiple Biological Agents

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2000 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$730,000.00
Agency / Branch:
DOD / ARMY
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
N/a

Electrochemical Enzyme Immunoassay to Test Blood HBV

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2001 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$0.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):Millions of Americans are infected by the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-many of whom have no reason to believe they are infected. There is a need to track down America's millions of HBV victims-as well as a corresponding need for innovative… More

Electrochemical Enzyme Immunoassay to Test Blood HBV

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2001 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$356,367.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):Millions of Americans are infected by the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-many of whom have no reason to believe they are infected. There is a need to track down America's millions of HBV victims-as well as a corresponding need for innovative… More

New Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Scoring System

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2001 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$0.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Identifying the roles of variable individual genetic factors can revolutionize approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence… More

New Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Scoring System

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2001 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$652,055.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Identifying the roles of variable individual genetic factors can revolutionize approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence… More

ELECTROCHEMICAL MOLECULAR ARRAYS FOR DRUG DEVELOPMENT

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2001 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$99,277.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (applicant's abstract): Some 45 percent of all approved cancer products. Plants and microorganisms can be extremely useful in the production these medicines or precursors for these medicines. Collectively, photosynthetic plants and microorganisms have a broad array… More

TOOLS FOR GENE-EXPRESSION STUDIES OF MALARIA

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2001 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$300,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (Verbatim from Applicant's Abstract): A child dies of malaria every twelve seconds. Hundreds of millions of all ages are infected annually. If carried out aggressively, new initiatives for preventing and treating malaria could soon save the lives of one-fourth of… More

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2002 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$359,546.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
Alderon Biosciences proposes to develop a new electrochemical method for detection of specific nucleic acid sequences without enzymatic, fluorescent or radioactive labels and to show the feasibility of applying this method in an electrochemical plate (E-Plate) format to studies of gene expression in… More

Electrochemical bDNA probe-based measurement of HIV load

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2003 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$190,888.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease have called for better tools for the detection and diagnosis of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. The need is for tests that are practical and affordable for use in resource poor settings,… More

One-Step Rapid Screening for Childhood Lead Poisoning

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2003 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The CDC states that lead poisoning is the number one environmental health problem affecting children in the US because it affects one of every six at-risk children and it is acknowledged to be a source of cognitive and behavioral impairment. Only 25% of the… More

Innovation Tools for the Molecular Diagnosis of Cancer

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2004 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$96,608.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert L. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Current treatment of cancer patients relies on establishing an accurate diagnosis using a complex combination of clinical and histopathological data but in some instances accurate diagnosis is difficult or impossible because of atypical clinical or… More

Device for Rapid Gene Detection of Multiple Bio-Agents

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2004 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$0.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert L. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Despite our progress in combating infectious diseases during the last century, many of those diseases still represent major threats. Moreover, we now have the technical capability to render those diseases even more dangerous, and the potential for biological… More

Device for Rapid Gene Detection of Multiple Bio-Agents

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2004 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$721,300.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert L. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Despite our progress in combating infectious diseases during the last century, many of those diseases still represent major threats. Moreover, we now have the technical capability to render those diseases even more dangerous, and the potential for biological… More

One-Step Rapid Screening for Childhood Lead Poisoning

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2004 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$749,999.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert L. Henkens
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The CDC states that lead poisoning is the number one environmental health problem, affecting children in the US because it affects one of every six at-risk children and it is acknowledged to be a source of cognitive and behavioral impairment. Only 25% of the… More

Electrochemical RT activity assay for measuring HIV load

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2005 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$599,996.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In this Phase I SBIR project Alderon Biosciences Inc. (ABI) proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of using electrochemical reverse transcriptase (eRT) assays for determinations of HIV viral load in clinical samples. Success will set the stage for Phase II… More

Electrochemical Quantification of HCV RNA

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2005 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$100,000.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease have called for better tools for the detection and diagnosis of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. To meet this need, Alderon Biosciences Inc. (ABI) proposes to develop innovative, low-cost… More

Printed Disposable Sensor for Quantitative HIV RNA Measurement of Viral Load

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2008 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$141,240.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease have called for better tools for the detection and diagnosis of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. In response to this need, Alderon Biosciences propo ses research to develop printed disposable… More

Pseudo Target Amplification Diagnostics

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2008 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$282,480.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease has called for better tools for the detection and diagnosis of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as influenza. The need is for tests that are prac tical and affordable for use at… More

Innovative Tools for the Molecular Diagnosis of Cancer

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2008 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$562,536.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The National Cancer Institute has called for new tools for cancer research and diagnosis that are accurate, practical and affordable. Alderon Biosciences, Inc. proposes to fill this need by developing an open biosensor platform technology for quantitative… More

Electrochemical RT Activity Assay for Measuring HIV Load

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2009 / SBIR / Phase II
Award Amount:
$1,345,650.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): To address the urgent need for better treatment and diagnostic testing of HIV infected people in resource-limited settings, we propose in this Phase II SBIR to further develop an electrochemical testing system (eSystem) developed by Alderon Biosciences, Inc. for… More

Targeting mutant KRAS for cancer therapy

Award Year / Program / Phase:
2013 / SBIR / Phase I
Award Amount:
$137,329.00
Agency:
HHS
Principal Investigator:
Robert W. Henkens – 252-646-1278
Abstract:
DESCRIPTION: Lead toxicity is a serious but preventable public health problem in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world. Even at very low levels, ingested lead causes irreversible damage, especially in young children, resulting in decreased IQ, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders,… More