Abstract:The conversion of corn and other biomass to fuel grade ethanol not only would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy sources but also would be a major industrial application for agricultural products. However, the process of drying the ethanol to fuel grade consumes significant amounts of energy,… more
Abstract:The need for natural gas continues to grow, and recent increases in petroleum prices have been paralleled by large increases in the price of natural gas. However, natural gas at the source often has high concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, which must be removed. Although… more
Abstract:New engine diesel pollution is addressed in the EPA Clean Diesel Truck/Bus and low sulfur diesel rule and non-road diesel rule. Unfortunately, slow fleet turnover with extend full implementation. EPA is interested in both retrofit technologies that reduce emissions (particulate matter, volatile… more
Abstract:A. Water must be removed from biodegradable hydraulic fluids as they react with water and degrade insitu. B. Biodegradable hydraulic fluids for farm equipment provide a significant improvement over traditional petroleum based fluids due to decreased pollution. Increase the use and value of… more
Abstract:The use of biodiesel offers significant advantages with regards to the reduction of total harmful engine emissions with the exception of NOx. Biodiesel is a renewable resource and soybean oil is known to be economically viable as a biodiesel fuel. Recent studies from the Environmental Protection… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Most pharmaceutical synthesis involve condensation or dehydration reactions at some point in the process that generates water as a by-product. This water must be removed since (1) water is often not a desirable component of the finished product, (2) water limits… more
Abstract:In the electrical power, steel production, and aluminum production industries, flame retardant, phosphate-ester hydraulic fluids are used to minimize fires. Although these fluids accomplish the fire-minimization task, they are unstable, which causes performance to suffer with attendant losses in… more
Abstract:Distillation is a major chemical unit operation and consumer of significant energy. Often, water or another intermediate boiling component can become trapped within the distillation column and accumulate. This causes various operating difficulties such as flooding, slugging, cycling, instability,… more
Abstract:Catalysis plays a substantial role in the synthesis of the most U.S. commodity chemicals, with huge implications for energy usage. Membrane reactors have been proposed for a number of these syntheses. However, to be competitive with conventional technologies, membrane reactors must demonstrate… more
Abstract:The use of ethanol as a fuel would impact U.S. reliance on foreign oil. However, among the economic obstacles to it widespread use are the costs of shipping fuel-grade ethanol by truck. Shipping ethanol by pipeline would be significantly less expensive, but, unfortunately, pipeline ethanol is… more
Abstract:Over the past few decades, computational electromagnetics (CEM) researchers have been making steady progress towards the development of efficient algorithms, such as the Method of Moments (MoM), for simulating scattering from electrically large targets. Unfortunately, such techniques have proved… more
Abstract:Photonic crystals have led the way for miniaturizing application specific optical integrated circuit (ASOIC) to a scale comparable to the wavelength of light which in turn made them a good candidate for next generation high-density optical systems and interconnects. Polymer based Photonic Crystal… more
Abstract:Atmospheric disturbances are a major performance-limiting factor in long-range optical systems. In particular, for the Airborne Laser (ABL) the ability of distinguish targets from a long distance is crucial for mission success. Despite the progress in optics and sensor technology, blurring in… more
Abstract:While the need for effective millimeter wave (mmW) imaging systems is clear, there remains a significant gap in the technology needed to realize it, namely the ability to process and enhance mmW imagery in a real-time manner. This is particularly important because raw mmW images appear very fuzzy,… more
Abstract:Optically interconnected systems provide a number of additional benefits. For example, by removing metallic traces, many signal integrity issues are also eliminated as the parasitic capacitance and inductance associated with high-speed lines are removed, which further improves systems performance.… more
Abstract:Range surveillance is a critical component of space exploration because of its implications on safety, cost, and overall mission timeline. However, launch delays, due to the difficulty of verifying a cleared range, are common and will increase as spaceports are developed in new areas. In order to… more
Abstract:The treatment of waste water consumes a significant amount of energy, in order to reduce the organic matter to levels safe for environmental discharge. This project will develop a novel microbial-based approach to convert the organic matter in waste water into a valuable commodity, namely hydrogen.… more
Abstract:A Phase I program was completed in which a non-ceramic SAPI solution was developed. The system contained a hard-faced metal matrix composite (MMC) tile in place of the brittle ceramic tile. Ballistic testing showed positive results and drop testing showed excellent durability. The Phase II… more
Abstract:Reaction bonded (RB) SiC and B4C offer high specific stiffness (modulus/density) comparable to beryllium (Be) and higher thermal stability (thermal conductivity/CTE) than Be. However, these materials have low fracture toughness (4 MPa m1/2 compared to 8-10 for Be) and hence have not been considered… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The long-term objective of this project is the development of a system based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for rapid and accurate antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Susceptible and resistant strains of MTB,… more
Abstract:Information Management is an important component in the development of viable information sharing systems, such as JBI, where shared information may be manipulated to derive further information. The qualities of such derived information depend on qualities of the contributing information and of… more
Abstract:Natural gas provides a clean and environmentally friendly fuel for electric power generation; however, the distribution network, and especially the storage system, is ill-suited for the projected gowth of natural gas for use in electical energy generation. This project will develop a natural gas… more
Abstract:Leveraging Spectrum Magnetics' expertise in large scale fabrication of nanomaterials together with University of Delaware's know-how in the research of magnetodielectric materials with simultaneously large permittivity and permeability, we propose to design and fabricate RF polymers that promise… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this project is to develop unique column packings for high-performance liquid chromatography. These new materials will allow the very fast separation and characterization of both small molecules of biological and pharmaceutical interest and very large… more
Abstract:Reduced-mass polymer composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems for reducing vehicle weight. But, composite material adoption is inhibited because the autoclave consolidation required is prohibitively expensive for the large tanks and skins contemplated in the Next… more
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