Abstract:NASA's ability to perform cutting edge space science, including lunar and planetary exploration, requires the use of cryogenically cooled detectors and sensors for advanced scientific instruments and telescopes. For example, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of cryogenic IR focal plane arrays it… more
Abstract:Microcalorimetry is an enabling technology for many NASA space science missions because it permits detection of single photons at high rates with unprecedented energy resolution and efficiency. This remarkable technology relies upon superconducting devices that must be cooled below 100 mK. We… more
Abstract:A wide range of practical instruments is needed for monitoring carbon dioxide concentrations of the land, air, and sea. Moderate accuracy of order 1 ppm (dry mole fraction) and temporal response of a few seconds will suffice. Expense, weight, size, and electrical power must be kept low to make the… more
Abstract:Tower-based observatories monitor terrestrial ecosystems from a single spot; however, it is not known if the observations are applicable to the entire ecosystem. A vertically-integrated suite of technologies could be used to evaluate ecosystem-atmospheric interactions and determine the actual… more
Abstract:During Phase I, AOS produced a prototype, equilibrator-based p(CO2) monitor and performed extensive research in the laboratory and in the field to verify its operation. It is compact, has minimal environmental loading and is suitable for autonomous deployments from research vessels and oceanic… more
Abstract:Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas, and improved in situ instruments are needed to track its flow throughout the global carbon cycle. Such instruments must be cost effective with regard to both hardware and operations; require little maintenance for deployments to the air, land, and sea; and… more
Abstract:The accurate numerical prediction of hazardous airborne plumes requires two important capabilities. First, meteorological conditions at fine spatial scale both at the time of plume release as well as a few hours into the future, and second, quantification of this information in a statistically… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project Summary - A new syndrome-based diagnostic system for rapid detection and identification of category B and C priority pathogens is proposed. Phase 1 will focus on V. cholerae genes and genes from similar pathogens. The technique relies upon a… more
Abstract:The complexity of simulating electro-magnetic propagation through turbulence often requires sophisticated techniques both in the use of proper physics models and in the numerical implementation in simulations. Incoherent imaging of extended targets is one problem which is not reasonably solved with… more
Abstract:This proposed Phase II effort continues to bridge the gap between the present state of development of MEMS deformable mirror technology and the practical implementation of this technology in high resolution, wide dynamic range applications. The high performance, low cost, and small size of these… more
Abstract:The proposed effort develops the understanding required to assess the utility of using a MEMS device to prepare the required optical fields that not only facilitate quantum entanglement, but also maintain a sufficient level of quantum entanglement for propagation through an aberrating medium such as… more
Abstract:The Kolmogorov spectrum for the refractive index is often assumed for analysis and simulation of optical propagation through turbulence. It is recognized that the Hill spectrum, including inner scale, is a more realistic model of index variations. This model includes a turbulence enhancement in a… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In the last decade, hearing aid technology has advanced rapidly and digital hearing aids are now widely available. Paralleling the advancements in hearing aids has been the rapid development in wireless communications. Digital cell phone has become an… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We propose developing bathing assistance technologies that are closely related at the device level for two very distinct, but important and underserved populations of potential users: 1) bedroom bathing for people with fragile skin receiving palliative care for… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A key need for urea monitoring is a simple and disposable device that can be easily integrated with existing hemodialysis (HD) technology. This proposal aims to demonstrate the feasibility of accurate on-line urea clearance monitoring using nanoengineered… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is an immediate need for novel drugs for the treatment of fungal infections, (antibiotics resistant) bacterial infections, and cancer. Cyclic peptides constitute a class of compounds that have made crucial contributions to the treatment of these diseases.… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The broad long term goal of this project is to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV through breast feeding in resource poor countries. In the developing world, perinatal transmission is greatly reduced through relatively simple expedients such as dosing… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The long term goal of this research is to reduce or eliminate blindness due to diseases of the back of the eye by developing sustained release intravitreal injectable formulations for anti-inflammatory drugs. In previous work, supported in part through SBIR Phase… more
Abstract:Given the vulnerability of the GPS system to intentional or hostile denial of service, it is imperative that the U.S. military develop technologies that provide robust navigation solutions that do not rely on GPS data. To achieve this capability, Aurora and MIT have teamed to develop the Integrated… more
Abstract:The machining of structures from materials such as titanium is typically accomplished using end mills and roughing 90 to 95 percent of the material to leave precise, complex features on thin walled structures. High speed machining is widely used in the manufacture of parts and reduces labor… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Influenza virus is one of the most important human pathogens accounting for widespread morbidity and mortality. Influenza virus is currently classified as a NIAID Biodefense Category C priority pathogen, a status that may be upgraded due to the recent emergence… more
Abstract:An improved control system for autonomous vehicles is proposed in which prognostic and diagnostic data generated by the vehicle itself is used as an input to the controller. This is in contrast to conventional controllers in which the vehicle is represented by a static model. ASI will analyze the… more
Abstract:There is an urgent need for a man-transportable EOD robot which can quickly traverse the distance between its operator and the suspected UXO, perform manipulation tasks requiring high dexterity, and then quickly return. This proposal describes an innovative solution to this need called `Taz'. Taz… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The confocal fluorescent microscope directly eliminates the light emitted from out-of-focus internal structures. This has enabled the observation of fluorophore-labeled processes or 3D structures deep within thick specimens. Unfortunately, high performance… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Impaired or abnormal wound healing is a major health problem for elderly, diabetic, immunosuppressed, immobilized, burn-injured and keloid individuals. Every year in the United States, 6.5 million people have chronic skin ulcers caused by pressure, venous stasis… more
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