Abstract:HNO3 (nitric acid) is an important aerosol precursor that is coupled to the removal of natural and anthropogenic NOx from the atmosphere. Tropospheric HNO3 is both a terminal product from NO2 oxidation, and an important aerosol precursor. HNO3 is highly soluable and is extremely effective at… more
Abstract:Measuring the radiative forcing of aerosols is currently the focus of the Department of Energy Atmospheric Sciences Program. Aerosol particles affect the radiative balance of the earth directly, by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud… more
Abstract:SO2 is an important ubiquitous aerosol precursor with anthropogenic, biogenic and geogenic sources. The sulfate aerosol produced from atmospheric oxidation of SO2 has a negative radiative forcing component that is highly uncertain due to its direct and indirect effects. Due to its potency as a… more
Abstract:Methane is the second most important atmospheric greenhouse gas after CO2 yet its global sources and sinks are still inadequately characterized. Monitoring the isotopic composition of atmospheric methane is one of the most promising approaches to closing the methane budget. Detailed process… more
Abstract:Aerosol particles have important impacts on visibility, acid deposition, climate, and human health, although large uncertainties remain in quantifying their chemical composition and atmospheric transformations. A large fraction of the anthropogenic aerosol is generated from energy-related… more
Abstract:Thermal batteries are used to provide primary power for a range of devices and military systems, and are characterized by a very long shelf life, ability to operate from -65 degrees F to 200 degrees F, and a rapid rise time. Drawbacks of thermal batteries, however, include occasional unreliability,… more
Abstract:Sensor protection against agile-frequency lasers is a critical Army Technology Objective (ATO). We propose simple defocusing of existing sensor optics as a layer within the optical limiting (OL) stack. This requires no additional optical components, and promotes compatibility with other OL stack… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerebral edema (CE, or brain swelling) is a major contributor to the damage caused by stroke, traumatic brain injury, and bacterial meningitis. Stroke alone is the third leading cause of death in the USA and the leadingcause of disability. Unfortunately, few… more
Abstract:Electric propulsion (EP) thrusters have the potential to enhance or enable Discovery-class missions. However, a significant challenge in scaling micro (<100 W) EP devices up as well as scaling macro (> 1 kW) EP devices down is the lack of a compatible neutralizer technology in the meso scale… more
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Aerophysics has developed the Local Space Imaging System (LSIS) to provide proximity detection for spacecraft. The LSIS sensor is a small, bolt-on unit that meets many of the requirements for this solicitation: the LSIS is small, low-power, semi-autonomous, and two LSIS units could cover… more
Abstract:Atmospheric aerosols influence the earths radiation balance through direct scattering and absorption of radiation, and through alteration in the formation, brightness and extent of clouds. The concentrations and size distribution of aerosols aloft is important to these effects. Needed is a method to… more
Abstract:Secondary and oxygenated organic compounds play an important role in the atmosphere. These constituents are involved in atmospheric transformation processes, and may play a significant role in the formation of cloud condensation nuclei. Unanswered questions include the relative importance of… more
Abstract:Fast gating or shuttering of light through a large aperture is possible with a HOE (holographic optical element) written into new novel materials such as, but not limited to, EO polymers. These materials can be non-birefringent thin or thick films applied to an optical substrate of a square… more
Abstract:The objective of this research and development effort is to encourage the genesis of innovative, high performance avionics systems, subsystems, and components that will enhance the capability of successfully achieving early intercept missile defense in current and future interceptors in a hostile… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This application is in response to NIH/PSH 2010-2 'Omnibus solicitation for SBIR/STTR Grant Application' under NIDA 2, Development of Alternate Drug Delivery Dosage Forms for Drugs Abuse Studies . Through the use of tobacco, nicotine is one of the most… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Development of automated neurobehavioral assay for rodent stroke model assessment Millions of elderly people suffer from stroke, which is the third leading cause of death in the US, after heart disease and cancer. Stroke survivors suffer from motor and cognitive… more
Abstract:Our proposed approach to computer security is proactive. We collect data through a set of sensors which is used to adapt to an attack, while protecting the operational integrity of the system under its protection.
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bone cements are widely used in maxillofacial surgery, repair of cranial defects, and dental fillings. Calcium phosphate bone cements are useful in many types of bone repair because they conform to the defect area, harden in situ, and can be resorbed and replaced… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Over 700,000 surgical hernia repairs are performed each year in the United States and despite recent advances, a significant rate of recurrence persists. Incisional or visceral hernia repairs account for 100,000 of these surgeries costing 1.7B annually, and have… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Approximately 500,000 bone-grafting procedures are performed each year in the United States.5 Autologous iliac crest bone graft continues to be the gold standard, because it provides essential elements for bone formation: progenitor cells, an osteoconductive… more
Abstract:DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Falls are the leading cause of injury-related visits to U.S. emergency departments and the primary etiology of accidental deaths in persons over the age of 65 years1. Interventions such as physical therapy, adjusting medications, or behavior changes can reduce… more
Abstract:The chloroperoxidase enzyme from the filamentous fungus Caldariomyces fumago has applications in industrial chemical synthesis and the detection and inactivation of chemical warfare agents. Chloroperoxidase is capable of regio- and enantioselective oxygenations and halogenations of organic… more
Abstract:The ability to direct the wound pathways following injury could provide a critical path in wound care at crucial times during the progression of healing. A promising field of study in wound healing is epigenetics; alterations in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in DNA… more
Abstract:Currently, the accepted standard experimental model for measuring protective efficacy against botulism is the Mouse Lethality Neutralization (MLN) assay. Botulism poisoning is a life threatening condition that is not only a public health concern, but could also be a potential biological weapon. … more
Abstract:ABSTRACT: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) serve an important role in manufacturing processes as solvents. However, once these products reach the marketplace the industrial solvents are released into the ambient air, causing them to concentrate in enclosed work spaces such as office buildings.… more
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