Human Exploration requires advances in propulsion for transport to the moon, Mars, and beyond. A major thrust of this research and development activity will be related to space launch and in-space propulsion technologies. These efforts will include earth-to-orbit propulsion, in-space chemical propulsion, in-space nuclear propulsion, and in-space electric propulsion development and demonstrations. NASA is interested in making propulsion systems more capable and less expensive. NASA is interested in technologies for advanced in-space propulsion systems to support exploration, reduce travel time, reduce acquisition costs, and reduce operational costs.