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All Solid-State Batteries for Navy Applications



TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Materials/Processes

ACQUISITION PROGRAM: 4.0T - CTO, Chief Technology Office

OBJECTIVE: Develop reliable all solid-state batteries (ASSB) with enhanced safety and performance by incorporating novel solid state electrolytes for naval aircraft applications.

DESCRIPTION: Naval aircraft currently use nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries to perform engine starts and provide emergency power. To improve energy and power density, the Navy is developing and transitioning lithium-ion (Li-Ion) chemistries for naval aircraft applications. For example, Joint Strike Fighter, F-35, currently uses a 28 Volt direct current (DC) and a 270 V DC lithium batteries on board. The demand is continuously increasing for high power, high energy, and long-lasting batteries without compromising on safety for naval aircraft applications. The potential gains of lithium-ion battery technologies are largely limited due to safety hazards associated with the organic liquid electrolytes, which are flammable, volatile, and corrosive.

Advances in overall Li-ion battery technology have resulted in significant improvements in battery electrode materials, liquid electrolytes, and, more specifically, solid electrolytes. Solid electrolytes present an opportunity to replace the liquid electrolytes. The solid-state electrolyte possesses desirable transport properties such as high conductivity, high diffusion coefficient, and high transference number, which have potential to eliminate fire hazards and can ensure the safe operation, protection, and longevity of the battery [1-2].

Recent discovery of a lithium super ionic conductor with 3-dimensional framework exhibiting high ionic conductivity (> 10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature) has revived interest in solid state ionic conductors and solid electrolytes [3]. The high ionic diffusion within the interstitial and vacancy sites of crystal lattices allowed the conduction network to achieve high conductivities for these solid electrolytes. The subsequent demonstration of using them as an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell demonstrated the possibility of an all solid-state battery.

New solid state electrolytes with high conductivity that are suitable for the current Li-ion battery chemistry architecture are needed. Innovative material design concepts to explore efficient solid ionic conductors should be considered. Solid electrolytes must exhibit thermal, chemical, and electrochemical stability. Material innovation coupled with novel fabrication techniques that would facilitate the realization of ASSB should also be demonstrated [4-7].

The ASSB system should demonstrate an energy density exceeding the 200 Wh/kg energy density threshold and 1500 W/kg power density threshold of current Li-ion batteries. The developed system must be compatible and functional with the existing aircraft operational, environmental, and electrical requirements. The requirements include, but are not limited to, an altitude of up to 65,000 feet, electromagnetic interference of up to 200 V/m, operation over a wide temperature range from – 40 degree centigrade to + 71 degree centigrade with exposure of up to + 85 degree centigrade [1], and withstand carrier based vibration and shock loads [6]. The ASSB system must meet additional requirements such as low self-discharge (< 5% per month), long calendar life (> 6 years service life) and good cycle life (> 6000 cycles at 100% depth of discharge cycles). ASSB system must have diagnostic and prognostic capabilities to ensure safe operation and service life of the battery.

PHASE I: Develop innovative concepts to demonstrate the feasibility of an all solid-state battery at full cell level. Perform preliminary safety, electrical, and performance evaluations.

PHASE II: Develop a prototype ASSB system for demonstration, test and evaluation able to meet requirements as identified in the Description section. Demonstrate manufacturing feasibility. Evaluate cost estimates for manufacturing of batteries for meeting form, fit, function requirements.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Integrate ASSB system into Navy aircraft electrical power systems and demonstrate the functionality of the battery in a safe and effective manner in an operational environment. Obtain flight certification and transition the representative technology to appropriate Navy platforms and commercialize the technology. Private Sector Commercial Potential: Improvements made under this topic would be directly marketable to the commercial aviation, transportation and consumer electronics sectors.


  • Takada, K, (2013). Progress and Prospective of Solid State Lithium Batteries, Acta Materialia, 61, 759-770
  • Patil, A., Patil, V., Shin, D.W., Choi, J.W., Paik, D.S., & Yoon, S.J, (2008). Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries, Materials Research Bulletin, 43, 1913-1942
  • Kamaya, N., Homma, K., Yamakawa, Y., Hirayama, M., Kanno, R., Yonemura, M., Kamiyama, T., Kato, Y., Hama, S., Kawamoto, K., & Mitsui, A, (2011). A lithium superionic conductor, Nature Materials, 10, 682 – 686.
  • NAVSEA S9310-AQ-SAF-010, (15 July 2010). Navy lithium battery safety program responsibilities and procedures. Retrieved from
  • MIL-PRF-29595A- Performance Specification: Batteries and Cells, Lithium, Aircraft, General specification for (21 Apr 2011) [Superseding MIL-B-29595]. Retrieved from
  • MIL-STD-810G – Department of Defense Test Method Standard: Environmental Engineering Considerations Laboratory Tests (31 Oct 2008). Retrieved from
  • MIL-PRF-461F – Department of Defense Interface Standard: Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interference Characteristics of Subsystems and Equipment (10 Dec 2007). Retrieved from

KEYWORDS: Safety; Battery; Electrodes; Liquid Electrolyte; Solid State Electrolyte; Solid State Battery

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