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Detection and localization of GPS spoofing signal emitters



OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop an innovative time difference of arrival (TDOA) approach to detect and locate GPS spoofing signal emitters in high accuracy and precision. 

DESCRIPTION: GPS spoofing signal emitters have become an increasing threat to GPS receivers. Due to the low signal power required to operate these devices, they are also difficult to detect. Various approaches have been proposed to defeat such measures, but most of these approaches are not able to localize the emitter. The distance from an emitter source can be accurately measured using a time difference of arrival (TDOA) ranging technique. With accurate measurements of the distances between three or more synchronized receivers, the location of an emitter can be estimated by multilateration. A system consisting of networked receivers will be designed and developed using a TDOA technique capable of: 1) Detecting the presence of a corrupted GPS solution due to a spoofing emitter, 2) Determining the location of the spoofing emitter, and 3) Extending the solution to multiple emitters. The system should detect the presence of GPS spoofing with a high confidence against any spoofing geometry or strategy while the receivers are on the move. Although this topic calls for the implementation of these techniques using the military GPS codes, the GPS C/A code would also provide an acceptable Phase II demonstration. 

PHASE I: Conduct a feasibility study that identifies and addresses the problems that must be overcome in order to successfully demonstrate the proposed concept. Analyze the accuracy supported by modelling and simulation results. Deliver a final report that covers the outcome of this study, performance specifications, and prototype design and fabrication plan details. 

PHASE II: Fabricate receiver prototype to test, demonstrate and validate the feasibility of the concept under simulated laboratory conditions. Demonstrate GPS-independent synchronization of networked receivers and pinpoint the locations of multiple emitters. Deliver the final report, TRL 5 networked receiver prototypes (four units), its description and operation guide, and laboratory test reports. 

PHASE III: Implement the demonstrated algorithm in GPS P(Y) and M codes. Develop a small size, weight, and power (SWAP) system applicable to mounted or dismounted platforms. Other military applications could include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), and other robotic platforms. This technology is transitioned to the Army Assured Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Program. 


1: M. L. Psiaki and T. E. Humphreys, "Protecting GPS from spoofers is critical to the future of navigation," IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 53-8, pp. 26-53, August 2016.

2:  K. C. Ho and Y. T. Chan, "Solution and performance analysis of geolocation by TODA," IEEE Tr. Aerospace and Electronics Systems, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp.1311-1322, 1993.

KEYWORDS: GPS Anti-spoofing, Detection And Localization Of Signal Emitters, Time Difference Of Arrival 


Yoonkee Kim 

(443) 395-1678 

Mr. Paul Olson 

(443) 395-0064 

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