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Energy Storage/Real-Time Peak Shaving



OBJECTIVE: Develop a real-time peak shaving, energy storage technology that can be installed at an AF sustainment complex / industrial facility. 

DESCRIPTION: Because electricity pricing is tied to usage, power consumption during peak times costs considerably more than power purchased during off-peak time. The focus of this effort is to develop cost-efficient energy storage solutions. Storage would be filled with off-peak power (or potentially alternative power) and fed back into the system during peak usage. The solution would also require real time usage monitoring system in order to predict when to charge and when to discharge. Determine acceptable locations and size for energy storage integration within the installation’s electric distribution system. This effort will be coordinated with a utility privatization contractor - privately owned power management company (City Light and Power (CLP)) and the base Civil Engineering. CLP maintains and operates the military installation’s transmission and distribution systems. The main base power at Hill reaches peak demand around 45 megawatts (MW). Peak demand during summer months usually occurs between 1 p.m. and 2 p.m. Monday through Thursday. Rocky Mountain Power (RMP) supplies electricity to Hill under rate schedule 9. During summer months, RMP Rate 9 on-peak hours begin at 1 p.m. and end at 9 p.m., Monday through Friday. Summer peak power charge is $13.96/kW and there is no power charge for off peak hours. Winter on peak hours begin at 7 a.m. and end at 11 p.m., Monday through Friday. Winter peak demand usually occurs around the 10 a.m. hour Monday through Thursday, peak charges are $9.47/kW with no power charge for off peak hours. RMP supplies power at 46 kV to HAFB. Power is supplied to substation 5 from the south side of the base through the Syracuse substation switch (SSS) located near the Fam Camp within the base fence line. 46 kV power is stepped down to 12,470 V at substations 2, 3, 4 and 5. Backup feed is at substation 2 during SSS interruption. Service to substation 2 is fed from the RMP Riverdale substation. Substation 2 is located on the north side of the base, 10 miles away from substation 5. The SSS switch serves as the line of demarcation between RMP and CLP distribution assets. Time meter data can be obtained at the SSS, current meter data is delivered to HAFB by RMP with a 24 hr delay. Real time metering of 1 to 15 min. could be sent to the base advanced metering reading system (AMRS) if appropriate cyber security authorization is obtained. Integrating with AMRS would allow user interface with the meter data. The system shall determine when power should be applied to or drawn from the storage device. This effort shall shave the peak load demand for power from the utility company. R&D controls shall ensure safe energy discharge into and off of the transmission system. At a minimum the system shall provide 1MW to 2 MW of peak shaving – greater values will be considered. The R&D shall optimize the energy storage, charge and discharge rates. The algorithm for energy discharge shall be based on demand profile, rate 9 on-peak schedule and real time data acquisition. The contractor shall develop the appropriate power metering, data acquisition and communication infrastructure. The contractor shall determine the best energy storage technology option (could be combination of energy storage techniques) for the AF sustainment installation. 

PHASE I: R&D solution that meets the above requirements and conduct preliminary business case analysis (BCA) to determine implementation costs, including a return-on-investment (ROI) calculation that compares anticipated savings to expected costs. Proof-of-concept prototype(s) shall be developed to demonstrate conformance to the requirements. 

PHASE II: Initiate and complete the test plan developed in Phase I. Proof-of-concept prototype(s) shall be refined to installation-ready article and shall undergo testing to verify and validate all requirements. This process may require multiple iterations before a final design is selected. Refine BCA/ROI based on the final design. 

PHASE III: If developed technologies are cost effective, passes verification / validation and qualification testing, then it shall proceed to transitioning and implementation of the technologies. With possible application to other AFSC sites. 


1. Department of Defense 2016 Operational Energy Strategy; 2. Department of Defense Energy Manager’s Handbook, Aug 5 2005; 3. Department of Defense Directive Number 4180.01 16 Apr, 2014; 4. Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 90-17, Energy and Water Management, 18 Nov 2016

KEYWORDS: Facility Power, Peak Shavings, Energy Storage, Electric Power 

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