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High Performance, Non-flammable Lithium Battery



OBJECTIVE: Develop a High Performance, Non-flammable Li-ion Battery (LIB) with improved safety and lower thermal management requirements, while maintain / increase the Power, Energy and Cycle life performance of state of the art Li-ion batteries. 

DESCRIPTION: Increased electrification of Army ground vehicles has the potential to increase fuel efficiency and enable integration of higher performance lethality and survivability systems including Directed Energy Weapons and Active Protection Systems. However a significant limitation to electrification are the safety risks and thermal management requirements of the current generation Li-ion battery (LIB) based Energy Storage System (ESS). LIBs utilize highly flammable, volatile electrolytes that can react with electrodes resulting in thermal runway and subsequent catastrophic failure. To mitigate this risk, ESS utilize thermal management and charge / discharge limitations to minimize failure events. They are also packaged in specifically engineered battery enclosures and located to minimize platform damage in the event of LIB failure. However these mitigation measures result in the platform incurring increased weight, volume and / or performance limitations. Recently, a non-flammable Li-ion electrolyte , , has been demonstrated with acceptable Power/ Energy density and Cycle life performance. This is a significant technical advancement in ESS systems as the development of non-flammable chemistry enables LIBs to be packaged in new form factors (e.g conformal linings) and located anywhere (e.g. crew compartment). It is expected that the successful transition of this technology to DOD applications would result in increased energy storage on a platform, lower weight, volume and cooling requirements and earlier / cheaper safety certification. 

PHASE I: A preliminary design based on initial experimental data (e.g. flash point measurements, cell polarization) and modeling showing the feasibility to meet non-flammability rating and meet / improve existing ESS performance metrics in a with a specific focus on Power Density (880W/kg), Energy Density (72Wh/kg), Cycle life (1000), Charge rate (1C) and Discharge rate (2C). Successful accomplishment of this phase includes meeting and demonstration of the aforementioned ESS metrics and delivery of button cells for evaluation / verification. 

PHASE II: Increased design maturity, additional experimental data (e.g. Accelerated Rate Calorimetry) and simulation results (e.g Battery module thermal modeling) to result in interim and final delivery of prototype batteries / cells. The final deliverables and data should support / verify a pathway to meet / exceed the MIL-PERF-32565 90AH LIB performance specifications4. It is expected that the final prototype deliverable (battery / cell) will be safer than MIL-PERF-32565 Type 1 LIBs and should result in a battery / cell demonstrating a SAE J2464 Hazard Severity Level rating is < 3 (nail penetration / overcharge abuse, battery projectile penetration)4. Successful accomplishment of this phase includes meeting aforementioned goals as well as cost competitive technology implementation in a 6T format. 

PHASE III: The end state of the research is the transition of the High Performance, Non-flammable Lithium Battery technology to DOD acquisition programs including US ARMY Program Executive Office Ground Combat Systems / PM Stryker. It is expected that development of a safer LIB will enable quicker and cheaper platform integration and SG-270 / S9310 safety certification for Naval transportation. Furthermore this technology can be transitioned to ARMY’s Next Generation Combat Vehicle hybrid platforms (PM NGCV) as it will have lower safety risk. Successful accomplishment of this phase includes OEM integration on combat vehicle platform to demonstrate capability to PM. 


1: Yang et al., Joule 1, 122–132, September, 2017

2:  Li et al., J Power Sources 394, 26-34, (2018)

3:  Zeng et al., Nature Energy 3, 674-681(2018)

4:  MIL-PERF-32565

KEYWORDS: Power, Energy, Battery, Fuel Efficiency, Rechargeable, Safety, Li Ion, Storage 

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