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Treatment technologies for water reuse


Novel treatment technologies that ideally are cost effective, energy efficient, do not require intensive maintenance or operational capacity, and could be implemented at small systems including at the decentralized/modular scale. There is specific interest in technologies that 1) do not generate a brine concentrate stream, 2) minimize the generation of a concentrate stream while resulting in a product water that properly removes or inactivates, salts, chemicals, and pathogens or 3) support beneficial reuse of brine concentrate. For concentrate forming technologies such as high-pressure membranes, they should produce less concentrate, manage concentrate better than or improve de-watering of concentrate over currently used technologies. Additional areas of interest include, but are not limited to, membranes that are more resistant to fouling.
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