Background The recent rapid expansion in availability of UxS, fueled in part by NOAA scientists and discoveries, has brought a corresponding increase in their innovative use as a force multiplier for many NOAA programs—augmenting data collection often at lower cost, increased safety, and reduced risk, especially in remote or extreme environments. Examples include hydrographic and habitat mapping, ocean exploration, marine mammal and fishery stock assessments, emergency response, and at-sea observations that improve forecasting of extreme events, such as harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Research Priorities: Examples of appropriate subtopics for research applications from small businesses include, but are not limited to the following: Uncrewed Ocean Exploration: Improve our understanding of U.S. deep waters and expand seafloor exploration and mapping to identify energy sources, minerals, and pharmaceuticals vital to U.S. industries, human health, and national security. Uncrewed Marine Mammal Tracking: Improve identification and characterization of marine mammals and wild fish stocks Uncrewed Ocean Data: Improve monitoring and characterization of oceans at all levels. Uncrewed Severe Weather Prediction: Cost-effective real-time monitoring of key characteristics related to severe storm development (tornado and derecho, fire weather, hurricanes).