You are here

Compact RAMAN System for Marine Wave Boundary Characterization


RT&L FOCUS AREA(S): Directed energy

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Battlespace Environments

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 3.5 of the Announcement. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws.

OBJECTIVE: Develop an advanced detection and targeting control for High Energy Laser (HEL) operating in the complex marine environments where the proposed RAMAN metrological sensor will also improve the submarine imaging and Radio Frequency (RF) detection.

DESCRIPTION: The Navy seeks technologies that are oriented toward a deeper experimental and theoretical understanding of maritime turbulence and laser light propagation in the marine boundary. Ocean evaporation is occurring within a very thin molecular layer at the surface. However, there are indications that turbulent structures in the ocean and atmospheric mixing layers play a critical role in determining the water vapor flux. The current measurement techniques, such as Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), are limited to resolutions of 1 micro meter or greater and fall short of the required sub micrometer level resolution. A new type of spectral imaging modality and instrumentation is required that will increase our understanding of ocean evaporation and lead to better tools for measuring and modeling the near-marine boundary layer for optical and radio frequency Naval applications. This generalized understanding will significantly enhance beam optic directors, adaptive optics, and other turbulence mitigating techniques to enhance the reach and effectiveness of communication as well as defensive and offensive laser light engagement in the marine boundary layer.

The overall objectives of this STTR topic are to: 1) develop a system capable of measuring atmospheric turbulence near the ocean surface (0 to 60 feet); 2) develop models that can predict turbulent effects given a set of atmospheric and marine surface conditions, such as surface temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, wave, fog, etc., that can affect marine wave boundary layer atmosphere; and 3) develop a metrological instrument based on RAMAN light detection and ranging (LIDAR). A RAMAN metrology system should be capable of accepting RAMAN signals from lasers operating in three octaves from the Near-Infrared (NIR) (~1 um), Visible (~500nm), to the Deep Ultraviolet (DUV) (~250nm). The multi-band RAMAN metrology system’s simultaneous backscattering analysis of three wavelength intensity measurement ratio would be able to validate atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie scattering models. The system would be used to adapt existing atmospheric models or creating new physics-based models of the marine boundary layer. The RAMAN spectrometer must be able to collect data at a repetition rate of at least 1 kHz in all three wavelength ranges. The metrology system technology should be compatible with a marine operating environment in accordance with MIL-STD-810H and capable of integration into a submarine sail or mast. This form factor capable of fitting within a 12 inch cubed volume would facilitate widespread deployment as a metrological tool for marine wave boundary atmospheric characterization. The RAMAN metrology system (multiband source, detector and software for analysis) is also the part of High Energy Laser (HEL) closed loop circuit to control the HEL beam on target. The proposed 3-band picosecond RAMAN laser shall be able to integrate into HEL systems for target ranging and detection. In this configuration, the system has the potential to enhance substantially Navy capabilities for deployed high power lasers operating in the marine environment. In this effort the proposer should use Open Model Based Engineering (MBEE) for the development of software, hardware and documents.

Testing and evaluation will occur at a Navy laboratory and will measure the effectiveness of the RAMAN metrology system to accept three synchronized laser pulses in the ultra violet (UV), visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) spectral bands. The laser pulse will have a temporal pulse width between 5 ps and 1 ns and a pulse repetition rate between 1 kHz and 5 kHz, and a stable, narrow laser bandwidth of a few wavenumbers or less sufficient to distinguish RAMAN lines. The RAMAN metrology system (multiband source and detector) should have a resolution of a few wavenumbers in each spectral region. The company shall acquire mJ per pico second multiband source for the compact RAMAN System development. The Government may also furnish a 3-band mJ per band pico source as a second source to the company for integration and comparison studies into compact RAMAN System. Both software and hardware of the integrated RAMAN system (source and detector) are to be delivered to Navy.

PHASE I: Develop a concept for a RAMAN metrology system based on Model Based Engineering (MBE) as outlined in the Description. Demonstrate the feasibility of that concept through architecture modeling, simulation, and theoretical calculation. Ensure that the RAMAN metrology system is capable of producing the required spectral resolution in each of the wavelength bands at the predicted repetition rate. The Phase I Option, if exercised, will include the initial design specifications and capabilities description to build a RAMAN metrology prototype solution based on MBE.

PHASE II: Develop and deliver a prototype of a 3-band RAMAN metrology system based on the concept developed in Phase I and the Phase II Statement of Work (SOW). Integrate the RAMAN metrology system with the 3-band laser source, detector and software for analysis. Work with the Navy for the evaluation of performance and further characterization for the purpose of RAMAN back scattering to characterize atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity. Support the Navy for validation and additional testing to be qualified and certified for Navy use.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Support the Navy in transitioning the technology to Navy submarine platforms as a metrological tool for marine wave boundary data collection. This technology can improve a commercial ship’s localized weather prediction and update the weather software for safe operation. Additionally, improved LIDAR detection for range at day, night, and all-weather conditions is beneficial for both commercial and DoD applications. The RAMAN metrology system could also find applications in trace gas and pollution monitoring.


  1. Wasiczko Thomas, Linda M., Moore, Christopher I.; Burris, Harris R.; Suite, Michele; Smith Jr., Walter Reed and Rabinovich, William. “NRL's Research at the Lasercomm Test Facility: Characterization of the Maritime Atmosphere and Initial Results in Analog AM Lasercomm.” Proc. SPIE, 6951, Atmospheric Propagation V, 69510S, April 18, 2008.  
  2. Whiteman, David N. "Examination of the traditional RAMAN lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations." Appl. Opt. 42, 2003, pp. 2571-2592.  
  3. Whiteman, David N. "Examination of the traditional RAMAN lidar technique. II. Evaluating the ratios for water vapor and aerosols." Appl. Opt. 42, 2003, pp. 2593-2608.  
  4. Deng, Chunhua; Brooks, Sarah D.; Vidaurre, German and Thornton, Daniel C. O. “Using RAMAN Microspectroscopy to Determine Chemical Composition and Mixing State of Airborne Marine Aerosols over the Pacific Ocean.” Aerosol Science and Technology, 48:2, 2014, pp. 193-206. DOI: 10.1080/02786826.2013.867297  
  5. “Department of Defense Test Method Standard Environmental Engineering Considerations and Laboratory Tests”, Department of Defense, Serial Number MIL-STD-810H w/Change 1, 15 Apr 2014
US Flag An Official Website of the United States Government