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Live, Virtual, and Constructive Cyber Battle Damage Assessment for Training


RT&L FOCUS AREA(S): General Warfighting Requirements

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Electronics; Human Systems; Information Systems

OBJECTIVE: Research, design, and develop intelligent cyber sensors that can accurately detect cyber range-based state information and distribute to traditional training architectures to enable integrated cyber-kinetic training opportunities.

DESCRIPTION: Cyber ranges, as the primary environment for conducting cyber training, must be able to collect key cyber state information, also known as cyber Battle Damage Assessment (BDA), and share this information with traditional simulation architectures and systems. This ability is foundational to creating an integrated cyber-kinetic training environment and requires the development of sensors that can accurately detect Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) cyber effects of interest such as Denial, Disruption, Degradation, Destruction, and Manipulation (4DM).

PHASE I: Identify shipboard C4I System interfaces and data flow vulnerable to a Great Power Competitor’s Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) and the interfaces of these systems to the Navy Continuous Training Environment (NCTE). Develop the design of a system/software scheme that would allow "live" signals to effect “virtual" simulations of identified shipboard C4I system. Submit the scheme for validation by Fleet Information Warfare (IW) Subject Matter Experts (SME), NCTE Interface Engineers, and Fleet Training SMEs from Tactical Training Group Pacific (TTGP) for a review at Naval Simulation Center Pacific (NSCPAC) San Diego CA. Provide all software designs, a description of software and hardware to be developed in Phases II and III, and a demonstration plan and scenario that will be executed at NSCPAC. Develop a Phase II plan.

PHASE II: Build and test a usable prototype of the software and hardware to be tested in the NSCPAC lab to demonstrate the ability to bring live signals into a virtual ship's identified C4I systems. Ensue that the deliverable will be a test ready article (hardware and software), which will be used in Phase III to test and demonstrate in a Fleet Synthetic Training (FST) Unit level event. Ensure that this prototype will use the Research, Development, Test, and Experimentation (RDTE) NCTE architecture and Joint Semi-Automated (JSAF) simulation for scenario and transport inside of NSCPAC. Tactical Training Group Pacific (TTGP) will act as the Distributed Training Center (DTC) and will provide IW SMEs to evaluate the prototype for ease of use, representations of the injected IW signal on the virtual C4I system, and the output of the BDA to the C4I system. All software developed as part of this research will be provided to ONR and other identified government users without restriction.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Make available to the Navy all technologies developed under this SBIR topic. These technologies will be installed at Tactical Training Group Pacific (TTGP) and onboard an assigned Destroyer at sea during a LVC Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX) offshore on the West Coast Tactical Training Range (WCTTR). Use of these technologies will help inform the Navy Fleet Training Program on how to use Operational/Tactical circuits to transport simulation & mentor data while at sea.

Private Sector Commercial Potential: Expansion of this technology for ship to and from aircraft, ship to and from submarines, and aircraft to and from submarines could be development opportunity for defense contractors, small businesses, and academia.

This technology could be expanded to improve operational and tactical capabilities that could be a “Game Changer” for the Navy.


  1. “Cyber Operational Architecture Training System (COATS): Prototype cyber-kinetic training architecture demonstrated at U.S. Forces Korea’s exercise Ulchi Freedom Guardian 2015.”  
  2. “Cyber-Kinetic Effects Interface (CKEI): U.S. Army’s prototype interface for integrating Carnegie Mellon University’s Simulation, Training, and Exercise Platform (STEP) web-based cyber training environment, One Semi-Automated Forces (OneSAF), and the Network Effects Emulation System (NE2S).”  
  3. “Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization’s (SISO) Cyber M&S Study Group: Defining requirements and designing a cyber-data exchange model for cyber information sharing between cyber ranges, simulation systems, and operational systems.”
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