Novel innovations and design efficiencies at both the building and single-family residence (household) scale for development of new treatment technologies tailored to achieve the required treatment (i.e., pathogen and chemical removal). At the building scale, modular treatment technologies would allow the technology to be scaled up or down depending on the size of the building(s) without expensive retrofits. At the household scale, the technology would need to be passive requiring minimal maintenance by homeowners or renters. At both scales, innovation is required to make the technologies cheaper, easier to operate and maintain, easier to monitor to ensure treatment effectiveness, minimize waste byproducts (e.g. brines), increase energy efficiency and easier to retrofit into existing building and housing stock.