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DIRECT TO PHASE II – Microstructural Analysis of Carbon-Carbon Structures for Hypersonic Applications


OUSD (R&E) CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Hypersonics; Space Technology The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with the Announcement. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. OBJECTIVE: Develop a microstructure model of both 2-D and 3-D carbon/carbon (C/C) examining the interface of matrix materials with various tow and yarn architectures. DESCRIPTION: The Navy relies on ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for thermal protection systems (TPS), flight bodies, propulsion systems, and hypersonic applications. Demand for increased speed and maneuverability requires high strength materials with the ability to survive at higher temperatures in oxidizing environments. Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon (C/C) composites are the most commonly employed CMC. All or part of the aeroshell of a hypersonic vehicle consists of C/C material systems. These material systems are an anisotropic material comprised of several other bulk materials each of which has a unique architecture with fiber bundles (yarn) woven in specific fashion and converted to carbon-carbon. Predicting aeroshell performance in various specific situations is complex and generally involves using multiple toolsets anchored with empirical data. In order to accurately model and support end-to-end analytical tools, the thermomechanical response of the aeroshell and full TPS over the course of the mission profile is necessary. It is this response which determines which mission profiles are viable. A thorough understanding permits engineering of the material better understanding of the design margins; and will enable design trades, analysis of performance boundary conditions, system lethality, and ultimately possible concept of operations (CONOPS). A thorough understanding also will permit modeling of the production process and will provide the insight necessary to make changes to the material system as the industrial base shifts, or as it is realized that small adjustments could improve performance or reduce cost. Today, we know a lot about the material properties of a few of the architectures of 2-D and 3-D carbon-carbon from sample tests, hot ground tests, and flight tests. We know almost nothing about how the properties of the constituent materials affect the bulk material properties. Thus, we are at the mercy of “build and see” as opposed to having the tools at hand that might provide insights via modeling. This SBIR topic aims to develop anchored models for 2-D and 3-D C/C material systems of interest at the peridynamic and meso scales. These models will then be used to inform higher level models and lead to constraints that can be applied in the optimization of trajectories tailored to a particular material type. The government will clarify the material systems of interest post award. The models may be incorporated into higher-level models at the meso scale and engineering model scale. Material characterization tests may be required in order to provide anchoring data for the models. If data exists on the material systems, access to those data may be provided upon contract award. Ultimately, a fast running analytical module will be developed which incorporates knowledge gained from the various multiscale analyses projects. Performers may propose a modeling task, material characterization tasks or a combination. Modeling should indicate the scale of the proposed models and techniques planned. Work produced in Phase II may become classified. The prospective contractor(s) must be U.S. owned and operated with no foreign influence as defined by DoD 5220.22-M, National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual, unless acceptable mitigating procedures can and have been implemented and approved by the Defense Counterintelligence Security Agency (DCSA). The selected contractor must be able to acquire and maintain a secret level facility and Personnel Security Clearances, in order to perform on advanced phases of this project as set forth by DCSA and SSP in order to gain access to classified information pertaining to the national defense of the United States and its allies; this will be an inherent requirement. The selected company will be required to safeguard classified material IAW DoD 5220.22-M during the advanced phases of this contract. PHASE I: For a Direct to Phase II topic, the Government expects that the small business would have accomplished the following in a Phase I-type effort and developed a concept for a workable prototype or design to address, at a minimum, the basic requirements of the stated objective above. The below actions would be required in order to satisfy the requirements of Phase I: • Produced a concept for a model of composite systems. • Described the objective use of the model and areas where peridynamic and/or meso scale information can be helpful in informing the model. • Demonstrated knowledge of hypersonic thermal protection systems and knowledge of relevant material systems. • Described ground tests that would be appropriate to anchor models at the various scales and recommend a test approach for peridynamic modeling, meso scale modeling, engineering model and fast running analytical code models. FEASIBILITY DOCUMENTATION: Offerors interested in participating in Direct to Phase II must include in their response to this topic Phase I feasibility documentation that substantiates the scientific and technical merit and Phase I feasibility described in Phase I above has been met (i.e., the small business must have performed Phase I-type research and development related to the topic NOT solely based on work performed under prior or ongoing federally funded SBIR/STTR work) and describe the potential commercialization applications. The documentation provided must validate that the proposer has completed development of technology as stated in Phase I above. Documentation should include all relevant information including, but not limited to: technical reports, test data, prototype designs/models, and performance goals/results. Work submitted within the feasibility documentation must have been substantially performed by the offeror and/or the principal investigator (PI). Read and follow all of the DON SBIR 23.1 Direct to Phase II Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) Instructions. Phase I proposals will NOT be accepted for this topic. PHASE II: The performer is expected to complete the following during Phase II: • Develop, mature and validate a material model to predict material performance based on constituent properties where the model is tailorable to mission profile requirements as outlined in the Description. • Complete an analysis plan which incorporates capabilities and resolution of modeling gaps to accomplish objective. • Develop thermal and structural material model framework which incorporates constituent information in formulation of anisotropic / orthotropic behavior. • Plan, predict, collect, and incorporate experimental data in support of development of material models, to include performance and characterization information. The model shall be validated against experimental data. The model will be refined and re-validated with updated data/information. • Parametric analysis results of constituent property changes of performance metrics shall be completed. • Deliver all models, analysis, data, and results for government use. It is probable that the work under this effort will be classified under Phase II (see Description section for details). PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Finalize development, based on Phase II results, and aid in supplying the Navy with detailed models needed to perform analysis sufficient to understand the impact of input materials, processing and flight conditions of a C/C material system under representative hypersonic flight conditions. REFERENCES: 1. Xuewen Sun, Haibo Yang, Tao Mi, "Heat Transfer and Ablation Prediction of Carbon/Carbon Composites in a Hypersonic Environment Using Fluid-Thermal-Ablation Multiphysical Coupling", International Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 2020, Article ID 9232684, 13 pages, 2020. 2. U. Papenburg, S. Walter, M. Selzer, S. Beyer, H. Laube, G. Langel, U. Papenburg, S. Walter, M. Selzer, S. Beyer, H. Laube and G. Langel. Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) for space propulsion systems. American Institue of Aeronautise and Astronautics, Inc. 33rd Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, WA, 06 July 1997 – 09 July 1997. 3. S. Schmidt, S. Beyer, H. Knabe, H. Immich, R. Meistring, A. Gessler. Advanced ceramic matrix composite materials for current and future propulsion technology applications. Acta Astronautica, Volume 55, Issues 3–9, 2004, Pages 409-420, ISSN 0094-5765. KEYWORDS: Hypersonics; silicon carbide; 2-D Carbon Carbon; 3-D Carbon Carbon; manufacturing; peridynamic scales; meso scales; thermal protection system
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