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Future Aviation Systems Safety

Description:

Scope Title:

In-Time Aviation Safety Management System (IASMS) Services, Functions, and Capabilities

Scope Description:

In alignment with Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Strategic Thrust 5, In-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance, AOSP's SWS Project is developing an IASMS, a scalable and distributed system approach to address aviation safety needs. IASMS services, functions, and capabilities (SFCs) are structured to “Monitor—Assess—Mitigate” operational safety risks. SFCs are envisioned to include increasingly automated and autonomous functionality to adapt and scale to the increasing complexity of aviation operations, necessitating new approaches to assure autonomous functionality. Proposed innovations are sought that can be easily incorporated into the IASMS. Proposals that lack a technology/function that can be integrated into the concept of IASMS will be rejected. 

Proposals are sought whose technologies can be integrated into IASMS:

  • Address safety-critical risks identified for beyond-visual-line-of-sight operations in small and large unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), such as:
    • Flight outside of approved airspace.
    • Unsafe proximity to people/property.
    • Critical system failure (including loss of command and control link, loss of or degraded Global Positioning System (GPS) coverage, loss of power, and engine failure).
    • Loss of control (i.e., outside envelope or flight control system failure).
  • Supporting safety prognostic decision-support tools, automation, techniques, strategies, and protocols: 
    • Support real-time safety assurance (including in-time monitoring of safety requirements).
    • Consider operational context as well as operator state, traits, and intent.
    • Integrated prevention, mitigation, and recovery plans with information uncertainty and system dynamics in small and large UAS and trajectory-based operations environment.
    • Enable transition from a dedicated pilot in command or operator for each aircraft (as required per current regulations) to single-pilot operations.
    • Enable efficient management of multiple unmanned and Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)/Urban Air Mobility (UAM) aircraft in civil operations.
  • Develop, apply, and assure IASMS services, functions, and/or capabilities to emergency response missions using aerospace vehicle operations. Operations may include hurricane disaster relief and recovery, search and rescue, medical courier, and security operations. 
    • SFCs should address one or more hazards highlighted in previous sections or identified through hazard analysis. Proposers are encouraged to leverage prior NASA work in this area.

Expected TRL or TRL Range at completion of the Project: 1 to 3

Primary Technology Taxonomy:

  • Level 1 16 Air Traffic Management and Range Tracking Systems
  • Level 2 16.1 Safe All Vehicle Access

Desired Deliverables of Phase I and Phase II:

  • Research
  • Analysis
  • Prototype
  • Software

Desired Deliverables Description:

  • Technologies that can advance the goals of safe air transportation operations that can be incorporated into existing and future NASA concepts. In particular, new technologies are sought that address AOSP SWS Project efforts to develop an IASMS.
  • Desired deliverables for Phase I include development of multiple concepts/approaches, tradeoffs analyses, and proof-of-concept demonstrations. 
  • Desired deliverables for Phase II include development of functional prototypes, integration of prototypes into existing and future NASA concepts, and demonstration of the prototype in a realistic environment.
     

State of the Art and Critical Gaps:

State of the art: Recent developments to address increasing air transportation demand are leading to greater system complexity, including airspace systems with tightly coupled air and ground functions as well as widely distributed and integrated aircraft systems. Current methods of ensuring that designs meet desired safety levels will likely not scale to these levels of complexity. AOSP is addressing this challenge with a major area of focus on In-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (ISSA)/IASMS.

Critical gaps: A proactive approach to managing system safety requires (1) the ability to monitor the system continuously and to extract and fuse information from diverse data sources to identify emergent anomalous behaviors after new technologies, procedures, and training are introduced; and (2) the ability to reliably predict probabilities of the occurrence of hazardous events and of their safety risks. Also, with the addition of UAM/AAM concepts and increasing development of UAS Traffic Management (UTM), the safety research needs to expand to include these various missions and vehicles.

Relevance / Science Traceability:

Successful technologies in this subtopic will advance the safety of the air transportation system. The AOSP safety effort focuses on proactively managing safety through continuous monitoring, extracting relevant information from diverse data sources, and identifying anomalous behaviors to help predict hazardous events and evaluate safety risk. This subtopic contributes technologies toward those objectives.

References:

https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aosp

Scope Title:

Verification and Validation (V&V) Technologies for Assurance of Autonomy for Operational Systems

Scope Description:

In alignment with ARMD Strategic Thrust 5, In-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance, AOSP's SWS Project is developing an IASMS, a scalable and distributed system approach to address aviation safety needs. IASMS services, functions, and capabilities (SFCs) are structured to “Monitor—Assess—Mitigate” operational safety risks. SFCs are envisioned to include increasingly automated and autonomous functionality to adapt and scale to the increasing complexity of aviation operations, necessitating new approaches to assure autonomous functionality. New methodologies for V&V of these capabilities are needed to ensure safe operations within the National Airspace System (NAS). Proposals that lack a technology/function that can be integrated into the concept of IASMS will be rejected. 

Proposals are sought whose technologies can be integrated into IASMS:

  • Address safety-critical risks identified in beyond-visual-line-of-sight operations in small and large UAS, such as:
    • Flight outside of approved airspace.
    • Unsafe proximity to people/property.
    • Critical system failure (including loss of command and control link, loss of or degraded GPS, loss of power, and engine failure).
    • Loss of control (i.e., outside envelope or flight control system failure).
  • Supporting safety prognostic decision support tools, automation, techniques, strategies, and protocols: 
    • Support real-time safety assurance (including in-time monitoring of safety requirements).
    • Consider operational context, as well as operator state, traits, and intent.
    • Integrated prevention, mitigation, and recovery plans with information uncertainty and system dynamics in small and large UAS and trajectory-based operations environment.
    • Enable transition from a dedicated pilot in command or operator for each aircraft (as required per current regulations) to single-pilot operations.
    • Enable efficient management of multiple unmanned and AAM aircraft in civil operations.
    • Assure safety of air traffic applications through V&V tools and techniques used during certification and throughout the product life cycle.

Expected TRL or TRL Range at completion of the Project: 1 to 3

Primary Technology Taxonomy:

  • Level 1 16 Air Traffic Management and Range Tracking Systems
  • Level 2 16.1 Safe All Vehicle Access

Desired Deliverables of Phase I and Phase II:

  • Research
  • Analysis
  • Prototype
  • Software

Desired Deliverables Description:

  • Technologies that can advance the goals of safe air transportation operations that can be incorporated into existing and future NASA concepts. In particular, new technologies are sought that address AOSP SWS Project efforts to develop an IASMS.
  • Desired deliverables for Phase I include development of multiple concepts/approaches, tradeoffs analyses, and proof-of-concept demonstrations. 
  • Desired deliverables for Phase II include development of functional prototypes, integration of prototypes into existing and future NASA concepts, and demonstration of the prototype in a realistic environment.

State of the Art and Critical Gaps:

State of the art: Recent developments to address increasing air transportation demand are leading to greater system complexity, including airspace systems with tightly coupled air and ground functions as well as widely distributed and integrated aircraft systems. Current methods of ensuring that designs meet desired safety levels will likely not scale to these levels of complexity. AOSP is addressing this challenge with a major area of focus on ISSA/IASMS.

Critical gaps: A proactive approach to managing system safety requires (1) the ability to monitor the system continuously and to extract and fuse information from diverse data sources to identify emergent anomalous behaviors after new technologies, procedures, and training are introduced; and (2) the ability to reliably predict probabilities of the occurrence of hazardous events and of their safety risks. Also, with the addition of UAM/AAM concepts and increasing development of UTM, the safety research needs to expand to include these various missions and vehicles.

Relevance / Science Traceability:

Successful technologies in this subtopic will advance the safety of the air transportation system. The AOSP safety effort focuses on proactively managing safety through continuous monitoring, extracting relevant information from diverse data sources, and identifying anomalous behaviors to help predict hazardous events and evaluate safety risk. This subtopic contributes technologies toward those objectives.

References:

https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aosp

Scope Title:

Technologies for Monitoring, Assessing, and Mitigating Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities and Attacks

Scope Description:

In alignment with the ARMD’s Strategic Thrust #5, In-Time System Wide Safety Assurance, AOSP's SWS Project is developing an In-Time Aviation Safety Management System (IASMS), a scalable and distributed system approach to address aviation safety needs. IASMS services, functions, and capabilities (SFCs) are structured to “Monitor—Assess—Mitigate” operational safety risks. SFCs are envisioned to include increasingly automated and autonomous functionality to adapt and scale to the increasing complexity of aviation operations, necessitating new approaches to assure autonomous functionality. Due to the increasingly digital transformation of the airspace system and nature of the IASMS, an area of high interest is methods for monitoring, assessing, and mitigating cybersecurity vulnerabilities and attacks. Innovative approaches and methods are sought that monitor/assess/mitigate vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by malicious actors. Proposals that lack a technology/function that can be integrated into the concept of IASMS will be rejected.

Proposals are sought whose technologies can be integrated into IASMS where potential cybersecurity or cyber-physical attack can affect any or all operations within UAS airspace system.

  • Research and development of ISSA objectives:  
    • Detect and identify system-wide safety anomalies, precursors, and margins.
    • Automatic remediation actions to restore sufficient network or application services to support mission essential functions.
    • Develop safety-data-focused architecture, data exchange model, and data collection mechanisms.
    • Enable simulations to investigate flight risks.

Expected TRL or TRL Range at completion of the Project: 1 to 3

Primary Technology Taxonomy:

  • Level 1 16 Air Traffic Management and Range Tracking Systems
  • Level 2 16.1 Safe All Vehicle Access

Desired Deliverables of Phase I and Phase II:

  • Research
  • Analysis
  • Prototype
  • Software

Desired Deliverables Description:

  • Technologies that can advance the goals of safe air transportation operations that can be incorporated into existing and future NASA concepts. In particular, new technologies are sought that address AOSP SWS Project efforts to develop an IASMS.
  • Desired deliverables for Phase I include development of multiple concepts/approaches, tradeoffs analyses, and proof-of-concept demonstrations. 
  • Desired deliverables for Phase II include development of functional prototypes, integration of prototypes into existing and future NASA concepts, and demonstration of the prototype in a realistic environment.

State of the Art and Critical Gaps:

State of the art: Recent developments to address increasing air transportation demand are leading to greater system complexity, including airspace systems with tightly coupled air and ground functions as well as widely distributed and integrated aircraft systems. Current methods of ensuring that designs meet desired safety levels will likely not scale to these levels of complexity. AOSP is addressing this challenge with a major area of focus on ISSA/IASMS.

Critical gaps: A proactive approach to managing system safety requires (1) the ability to monitor the system continuously and to extract and fuse information from diverse data sources to identify emergent anomalous behaviors after new technologies, procedures, and training are introduced; and (2) the ability to reliably predict probabilities of the occurrence of hazardous events and of their safety risks. Also, with the addition of UAM/AAM concepts and increasing development of UTM, the safety research needs to expand to include these various missions and vehicles.

Relevance / Science Traceability:

Successful technologies in this subtopic will advance the safety of the air transportation system. The AOSP safety effort focuses on proactively managing safety through continuous monitoring, extracting relevant information from diverse data sources, and identifying anomalous behaviors to help predict hazardous events and evaluate safety risk. This subtopic contributes technologies toward those objectives.

References:

https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aosp

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