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Polymer, Solid Electrolyte, and Lithium Anode Battery to Enhance Kinetics

Description:

OUSD (R&E) CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Integrated Network System of Systems OBJECTIVE: Creation of a high energy dense, future safe, lithium-ion battery that facilitates charge transfer of solid-electrolyte interfaces, high voltage cathodes, and lithium-metal anodes. DESCRIPTION: Higher energy densities can be achieved primarily through pairing high voltage, high-capacity cathodes with Li-metal anodes. To enable the use of next generation elevated voltage cathode materials with lithium-metal anode, stabilizing cathode coatings can be affixed to improve interfacial structural stability, mitigate electrochemical impedance increases, and diminish thermally induced degradation. Additionally, employing electrolytes that can withstand penetration testing without flame and fumes is important for the development of on-platform energy storage such as arial and ground vehicles. Lithium-anodes are vital for improving the energy density of the cell due to the capacity / weight of graphite anodes, although uniform plating and electronic connectivity to the electrolyte needs improvement. Cathodes with elevated discharge voltages will increase the energy output / electron moved, better understood through this application of the Ohm’s Law: Energy Density = (Current Density * Voltage) * Time. Spinel, olivine, and other high voltage cathodes can store high quantities of lithium-ion and discharge at elevated voltages making them prime candidates. Solid-electrolyte batteries are a vital technology that needs to be developed to meet the energy safety requirements for the future Army. They can sustain high cell voltages, which promote greater power and energy capabilities, they are mechanically stronger than liquid electrolyte batteries, fighting dendrite formation with lithium anode increasing safety, and they have high conductivity capabilities leading to high electrochemical performance. The issue with these solid-electrolyte batteries is the elevated charge transfer resistance at both solid-solid interfaces between the electrolyte and the electrodes. If the charge transfer at these interfaces can be improved and the low temperature performance of the solid electrolyte can be augmented. Battery needs to be able to operate in a wide temperature range. This STTR looks to create artificial solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) layers with conducting polymers to overcome the inherit challenges to ionic transfer across the cathodic and anodic interfaces. These resistances to charge transfer are largely attributed to the poor connection between a solid electrolyte and a solid electrode. Ameliorating these will promote longer cycle lives, improved power, and more stable charge transfer with the lithium-anode, leading to better safety characteristics. Utilizing known supercapacitor work with electrically conducting polymers (ECPs), specifically poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline (PANI), quinone, polyacetylene, and biological derivatives such as lignin / sulfonated lignin, artificial SEI / cathode-electrolyte interface (CEI) layers can exploit the conductive nature of the polymer to assist ionic transport. With these adaptations this battery will fully be able to exploit the inherit safety and energy storage performance of solid electrolyte batteries, while finally amending the internal resistance issues to promote a wide application of energy dense batteries. This work should be at the STTR level because the maturity of these chemistries is currently in fundamental research. PHASE I: Design a concept cell for nonflammable solid-state electrolyte that optimize gravimetric energy density at elevated discharge voltages and prolonged cycle life above 80% capacity retention. Phase I deliverables include monthly progress reports describing all technical challenges, technical risk, and progress against the schedule, a final technical report, and 10 laboratory cells (coin or pouch cells) to the U.S. Army for testing. PHASE II: Refine and optimize cell level materials selected in phase I and develop and deliver pouch cells to meet target performance requirements of elevated discharge voltage cells, high energy density, decent cycle life capability > 80% capacity retentions at room temperature, and 75% capacity retention at 0 °C with respect to room temperature capacity. Additional optimization with the target of expanding the rate capability of these cells will also be included in phase II. Required phase II deliverables will include 20 cells (pouch), as well as monthly progress reports and a final technical data package. PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Transition this technology to prototype cells that will be intended for assembly into batteries for soldier carried applications. The deliverable for phase III is multilayered pouch cells with capacities in the order of Ahs to be included in future batteries. REFERENCES: 1. Baroncini, E. A., Rousseau, D. M., Strekis IV, C. A., & Stanzione III, J. F. (2020). Optimizing conductivity and cationic transport in crosslinked solid polymer electrolytes. Solid State Ionics, 345, 115161. 2. Baroncini, E. A., & Stanzione III, J. F. (2018). Incorporating allylated lignin-derivatives in thiol-ene gel-polymer electrolytes. International journal of biological macromolecules, 113, 1041-1051. 3. Atwater, T. B., & Tavares, P. (2013). Halogenated Lithium Manganese Oxide AB₂O4-dXd Spinel Cathode Material. SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing, 6(1), 85-89. 4. Huang, Y., Dong, Y., Li, S., Lee, J., Wang, C., Zhu, Z., ... & Li, J. (2021). Lithium manganese spinel cathodes for lithium‐ion batteries. Advanced Energy Materials, 11(2), 2000997. 5. Zeng, J., Liu, Q., Jia, D., Liu, R., Liu, S., Zheng, B., ... & Wu, D. (2021). A polymer brush-based robust and flexible single-ion conducting artificial SEI film for fast charging lithium metal batteries. Energy Storage Materials, 41, 697-702. 6. Liu, Y., Hu, R., Zhang, D., Liu, J., Liu, F., Cui, J., ... & Zhu, M. (2021). Constructing Li‐Rich Artificial SEI Layer in Alloy–Polymer Composite Electrolyte to Achieve High Ionic Conductivity for All‐Solid‐State Lithium Metal Batteries. Advanced Materials, 33(11), 2004711 KEYWORDS: Energy Storage, Polymeric Electrolytes, Spinel Cathodes, High Energy Density, Improved Safety, Soldier Lethality, Future Vertical Lift.
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