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Future Aviation Systems Safety

Description:

Scope Title:

In-TimeAviation Safety Management System (IASMS) Services, Functions, andCapabilities

ScopeDescription:

Inalignment with Aeronautics Research MissionDirectorate (ARMD) Strategic Thrust5, In-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance,AOSP's SWS Project is developing an IASMS, a scalableand distributed system approach to address aviation safetyneeds. IASMS services, functions, and capabilities (SFCs)are structured to“Monitor—Assess—Mitigate”operational safety risks. SFCs are envisioned to includeincreasingly automated and autonomous functionality to adapt and scaleto the increasing complexity of aviation operations, necessitating newapproaches to assure autonomous functionality. Proposedinnovations are sought that can be easily incorporated intothe IASMS. Proposals that lack a technology/functionthat can be integrated into the concept of IASMS will berejected. 

Proposals are sought withtechnologies that can be integrated into IASMS:

  • Addresssafety-critical risks identified for beyond-visual-line-of-sightoperations in small and large unmanned aircraft systems(UAS), such as:
    • Flightoutside of approved airspace.
    • Unsafeproximity to people/property.
    • Criticalsystem failure (including loss of command and control link,loss of or degraded Global Positioning System (GPS) coverage, loss ofpower, and engine failure).
    • Loss ofcontrol (i.e., outside envelope or flight control systemfailure).
  • Supporting safety prognostic decision-support tools, automation,techniques, strategies, and protocols: 
    • Supportreal-time safety assurance (including in-time monitoring of safetyrequirements).
    • Consideroperational context, as well as operator state, traits, andintent.
    • Integrated prevention, mitigation, and recovery plans withinformation uncertainty and system dynamics in small and large UAS andtrajectory-based operations environment.
    • Enabletransition from a dedicated pilot in command or operator for eachaircraft (as required per current regulations) to single-pilotoperations.
    • Enableefficient management of multiple unmanned and Advanced Air Mobility(AAM)/Urban Air Mobility (UAM) aircraft in civiloperations.
  • Develop,apply, and assure IASMS services, functions, and/or capabilities toemergency response missions using aerospace vehicleoperations. Operations may include hurricanedisaster relief and recovery, search and rescue, medical courier, andsecurity operations. 
    • SFCsshould address one or more hazards highlighted in previous sections oridentified through hazard analysis. Proposers are encouraged to leverageprior NASA work in this area.

Expected TRL or TRL Range at completion of theProject: 1 to 3

Primary TechnologyTaxonomy:

  • Level 1 16 AirTraffic Management and Range TrackingSystems
  • Level 2 16.1 Safe AllVehicleAccess

DesiredDeliverables of Phase I and PhaseII:

  • Research
  • Analysis
  • Prototype
  • Software

DesiredDeliverables Description:

  • Technologies that can advance the goals of safe airtransportation operations that can be incorporated into existing andfuture NASA concepts. In particular, new technologies are sought thataddress AOSP SWS Project efforts to develop an IASMS.
  • Desired deliverables for Phase I include development of multipleconcepts/approaches, tradeoffs analyses, and proof-of-conceptdemonstrations. 
  • Desired deliverables for Phase II include development offunctional prototypes, integration of prototypes into existing andfuture NASA concepts, and demonstration of the prototype in a realisticenvironment.

State of the Art and CriticalGaps:

State of theart: Recent developments to address increasing airtransportation demand are leading to greater system complexity,including airspace systems with tightly coupled air and groundfunctions, as well as widely distributed and integrated aircraftsystems. Current methods of ensuring that designs meet desiredsafety levels will likely not scale to these levels ofcomplexity. AOSP is addressing this challenge with a major areaof focus on In-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (ISSA)/IASMS.

Critical gaps: Aproactive approach to managing system safety requires: (1) theability to monitor the system continuously and to extract and fuseinformation from diverse data sources to identify emergent anomalousbehaviors after new technologies, procedures, and training areintroduced; and (2) the ability to reliably predict probabilities of theoccurrence of hazardous events and of their safety risks. Also,with the addition of UAM/AAM concepts andincreasing development of UAS Traffic Management (UTM), the safetyresearch needs to expand to include these various missions andvehicles.

Relevance / ScienceTraceability:

Successful technologies in thissubtopic will advance the safety of the air transportationsystem. The AOSP safety effort focuses on proactively managingsafety through continuous monitoring, extracting relevant informationfrom diverse data sources, and identifying anomalous behaviors to helppredict hazardous events and evaluate safety risk. Thissubtopic contributes technologies toward thoseobjectives.

References:

https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aosp

ScopeTitle:

Verification and Validation (V&V)Technologies for Assurance of Autonomy for OperationalSystems

ScopeDescription:

Inalignment with ARMD Strategic Thrust 5, In-TimeSystem-Wide Safety Assurance, AOSP's SWS Project isdeveloping an IASMS, a scalable and distributed system approachto address aviation safety needs. IASMS services, functions, andcapabilities (SFCs) are structured to“Monitor—Assess—Mitigate”operational safety risks. SFCs are envisioned to includeincreasingly automated and autonomous functionality to adapt and scaleto the increasing complexity of aviation operations, necessitating newapproaches to assure autonomous functionality. Newmethodologies for V&V of these capabilities are needed to ensuresafe operations within the National AirspaceSystem (NAS). Proposals that lack atechnology/function that can be integrated into the concept of IASMSwill be rejected. 

Proposals are sought withtechnologies that can be integrated into IASMS:

  • Addresssafety-critical risks identified in beyond-visual-line-of-sightoperations in small and large UAS, such as:
    • Flightoutside of approved airspace.
    • Unsafeproximity to people/property.
    • Criticalsystem failure (including loss of command and control link,loss of or degraded GPS, loss of power, and enginefailure).
    • Loss ofcontrol (i.e., outside envelope or flight control systemfailure).
  • Supporting safety prognostic decision support tools, automation,techniques, strategies, and protocols: 
    • Supportreal-time safety assurance (including in-time monitoring of safetyrequirements).
    • Consideroperational context, as well as operator state, traits, andintent.
    • Integrated prevention, mitigation, and recovery plans withinformation uncertainty and system dynamics in small and large UAS andtrajectory-based operations environment.
    • Enabletransition from a dedicated pilot in command or operator for eachaircraft (as required per current regulations) to single-pilotoperations.
    • Enableefficient management of multiple unmanned and AAM aircraft in civiloperations.
    • Assuresafety of air traffic applications through V&V toolsand techniques used during certification and throughout the product lifecycle.

Expected TRL or TRL Range at completion of theProject: 1 to 3

Primary TechnologyTaxonomy:

  • Level 1 16 AirTraffic Management and Range TrackingSystems
  • Level 2 16.1 Safe AllVehicleAccess

DesiredDeliverables of Phase I and PhaseII:

  • Research
  • Analysis
  • Prototype
  • Software

DesiredDeliverables Description:

  • Technologies that can advance thegoals of safe air transportation operations that can be incorporatedinto existing and future NASA concepts. In particular, new technologiesare sought that address AOSP SWS Projectefforts to develop an IASMS.
  • Desired deliverables for Phase Iinclude development of multiple concepts/approaches, tradeoffsanalyses, and proof-of-concept demonstrations. 
  • Desired deliverables for Phase IIinclude development of functional prototypes, integration of prototypesinto existing and future NASA concepts, and demonstration of theprototype in a realistic environment.

State of the Art and CriticalGaps:

State of theart: Recent developments to address increasing airtransportation demand are leading to greater system complexity,including airspace systems with tightly coupled air and groundfunctions, as well as widely distributed and integrated aircraftsystems. Current methods of ensuring that designs meet desiredsafety levels will likely not scale to these levels ofcomplexity. AOSP is addressing this challenge with a major areaof focus on ISSA/IASMS.

Critical gaps: Aproactive approach to managing system safety requires: (1) theability to monitor the system continuously and to extract and fuseinformation from diverse data sources to identify emergent anomalousbehaviors after new technologies, procedures, and training areintroduced; and (2) the ability to reliably predict probabilities of theoccurrence of hazardous events and of their safety risks. Also,with the addition of UAM/AAM concepts and increasingdevelopment of UTM, the safety research needs to expand to include thesevarious missions and vehicles.

Relevance / ScienceTraceability:

Successful technologies in thissubtopic will advance the safety of the air transportationsystem. The AOSP safety effort focuses on proactively managingsafety through continuous monitoring, extracting relevant informationfrom diverse data sources, and identifying anomalous behaviorsto help predict hazardous events and evaluate safety risk. This subtopiccontributes technologies toward thoseobjectives.

References:
https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aosp

ScopeTitle:

Technologies for Monitoring, Assessing,and Mitigating Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities andAttacks

ScopeDescription:

Inalignment with the ARMD’s Strategic Thrust#5, In-Time System Wide Safety Assurance, AOSP'sSWS Project is developing an In-Time Aviation Safety ManagementSystem (IASMS), a scalable and distributed system approach to addressaviation safety needs. IASMS services, functions, andcapabilities (SFCs) are structured to“Monitor—Assess—Mitigate”operational safety risks. SFCs are envisioned toinclude increasingly automated and autonomous functionality to adapt andscale to the increasing complexity of aviation operations, necessitatingnew approaches to assure autonomous functionality. Due to theincreasingly digital transformation of the airspace system and nature ofthe IASMS, an area of high interest is methods for monitoring,assessing, and mitigating cybersecurity vulnerabilities andattacks. Innovative approaches and methods are sought thatmonitor/assess/mitigate vulnerabilities before they canbe exploited by malicious actors. Proposals that lacka technology/function that can be integrated into the concept of IASMSwill be rejected.

Proposals are sought withtechnologies that can be integrated into IASMSwhere potential cybersecurity or cyber-physical attack canaffect any or all operations within UAS airspace system.

  • Research and development of ISSAobjectives:  
    • Detectand identify system-wide safety anomalies, precursors, andmargins.
    • Automatic remediation actions to restore sufficient network orapplication services to support mission essentialfunctions.
    • Developsafety-data-focused architecture, data exchange model, and datacollection mechanisms.
    • Enablesimulations to investigate flight risks.

Expected TRL or TRL Range at completion of theProject: 1 to 3

Primary TechnologyTaxonomy:

  • Level 1 16 AirTraffic Management and Range TrackingSystems
  • Level 2 16.1 Safe AllVehicleAccess

DesiredDeliverables of Phase I and PhaseII:

  • Research
  • Analysis
  • Prototype
  • Software

DesiredDeliverables Description:

  • Technologies that can advance thegoals of safe air transportation operations that can be incorporatedinto existing and future NASA concepts. In particular, new technologiesare sought that address AOSP SWS Projectefforts to develop an IASMS.
  • Desired deliverables for Phase Iinclude development of multiple concepts/approaches, tradeoffsanalyses, and proof-of-concept demonstrations. 
  • Desired deliverables for Phase IIinclude development of functional prototypes, integration of prototypesinto existing and future NASA concepts, and demonstration of theprototype in a realistic environment.

State of the Art and CriticalGaps:

State of theart: Recent developments to address increasing airtransportation demand are leading to greater system complexity,including airspace systems with tightly coupled air and groundfunctions, as well as widely distributed and integrated aircraftsystems. Current methods of ensuring that designs meet desiredsafety levels will likely not scale to these levels ofcomplexity. AOSP is addressing this challenge with a major areaof focus on ISSA/IASMS.

Critical gaps: Aproactive approach to managing system safety requires: (1) theability to monitor the system continuously and to extract and fuseinformation from diverse data sources to identify emergent anomalousbehaviors after new technologies, procedures, and training areintroduced; and (2) the ability to reliably predict probabilities of theoccurrence of hazardous events and of their safety risks. Also,with the addition of UAM/AAM concepts and increasingdevelopment of UTM, the safety research needs to expand to include thesevarious missions and vehicles.

Relevance / ScienceTraceability:

Successful technologies in thissubtopic will advance the safety of the air transportationsystem. The AOSP safety effort focuses on proactively managingsafety through continuous monitoring, extracting relevant informationfrom diverse data sources, and identifying anomalous behaviors to helppredict hazardous events and evaluate safety risk. This subtopiccontributes technologies toward thoseobjectives.

References:
https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aosp

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