OBJECTIVE: Define, develop and demonstrate anthropometric casualty estimation methodologies for analyzing personal protective equipment fit and form taking into account individual body shape differences impact on Soldier protection DESCRIPTION: Soldier force protection is a major Army challenge to ensure the highest degree of Soldier survivability across the spectrum of Army operations. Soldier body armor is designed to provide individual ballistic and blast protection to improve the Soldier survivability when facing small arms fire, artillery, and secondary fragmentation from explosions (e.g. improvised explosive devices, IEDs). Body armor, and other wearable protective equipment, fit individual body shapes differently and the variation in coverage leads to variation in Soldier protection and survivability. For example, the Army"s Interceptor body armor uses four rigid plates that can stop most lethal bullets; however the wide ranges of body types results in variations in fit that can impact protection. The Army has a need for improved tools to assess the effectiveness of material solutions to provide Soldier protection while taking into account the variation in individual protective equipment fit. Key metrics are to take into account most individual body shape variations in the design of Soldier protective equipment as well as to identify critical fit and form issues and their associated impacts. The Army has invested heavily in an anthropometric survey and the collection of accurate three dimensional (3D) data of active duty Soldiers to enable development of better anthropometric models to assist in Soldier clothing and equipment design. New and innovative anthropometric-based casualty estimation methodologies are needed that can leverage and utilize these 3D data sets to design improved protective systems that better fit the range of body types to optimize Soldier protection while maintaining combat effectiveness. PHASE I: Research and develop an innovative approach to advance the design of anthropometric casualty estimation methodologies capable of addressing individual body shape differences for the design of Soldier protective equipment. The approach must start with a needs assessment to identify potential design alternatives and assess their capability to support, develop, extend and integrate into existing capabilities. Assumptions, limitations, barriers and bounds of design alternatives shall also be assessed and presented. Proposed methodologies will enable the quantifying of the impact of body size/shape variation on the fit and form of Soldier protective equipment on Soldier survivability. The design must also provide a clear explanation of how the proposed concept can be extended in more detail and how any potential concept shortfalls can be achieved in a SBIR Phase II effort (this task will not be accepted as a Phase I option task). A proof-of- concept of the soundness, feasibility and validity of the proposed advanced design approach concept will be performed. The concept must clearly demonstrate a linkage between high level and low level elements and express the critical need for their inclusion. The Phase I process and results will be captured in a final report identifying the recommended design approach, process, assessment, details and rationale for recommendation. PHASE II: Define and refine a functional prototype of anthropometric casualty estimation methodologies designed in Phase I. Demonstrate how the prototype system supports a practical implementation for conducting anthropometric based casualty assessment on standard anthropometric data sets to represent individual body shape variation for Soldier protection and PPE design. Conduct verification and validation (V&V) studies to establish that the model properly represents the body fit variation data (i.e. scan, survey data, etc) to support casualty assessment. Document the design, development, resulting Phase II products, process and demonstrations of the proposed concept to include a listing and explanation of assumptions, traceability, barriers and bounds associated with the modeling approach. PHASE III: The initial use for this technology will be to allow design of improved protective systems that fit the range of body types to optimize Soldier protection. The SBIR results could also support various commercial applications. Examples of potential applications range from local and state government first responders and disaster preparedness organizations, logistics planning and forecasting, police planning and mission rehearsal, and the software gaming industry. The SBIR results could support various commercial applications by extending the concept and prototype developed in Phase I and II for commercial and military use, such as demonstrating the use of the tool in early Soldier protective equipment design or selection processes. Multiple commercial applications exist for this SBIR technology to include commercial protective equipment design and manufacturing, and even use in sports applications, such as protective equipment against sports injuries in football, car racing, hockey, and extreme sports.