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All-solid-state Hybrid Energy Storage System (Battery-Ultracapacitor)


OBJECTIVE: Current technologies tend to limit capabilities of energy storage devices either to high energy storage or high power delivery. The objective is to develop all-solid-state flexible energy storage devices with both high energy and high power densities for various battlefield applications ranging from miniaturized sensors, communication devices to missiles. DESCRIPTION: Power requirements for various battlefield applications such as missiles, sensors, communication systems, night-vision devices, etc. vary from high energy storage to high power delivery capabilities. High energy densities of batteries are favorable in powering devices for extended periods in a wide variety of duty cycles to sustain their operation throughout the mission lifetime [1,2]. However, batteries are capable of delivering only limited power upon discharge. Ultracapacitors based on electrochemical double-layer capacitance possess the ability to deliver more specific power but store less specific energy than batteries [3,4]. They are used in many applications such as quick reaction systems including munitions, power electronics, etc., where a sudden surge of power is required. However, the performance demands of such applications cannot be fully met because of the low energy density of ultracapacitors. The main objective of this solicitation is to investigate novel electro-chemical solutions to simultaneously optimize energy and power density of energy storage systems. The current-state-of-the-art of such hybrid systems consisting of redox and double-layer components is still unable to meet the energy and power demands of the warfighter [5,6]. This solicitation is aimed at achieving energy densities>100 Wh/kg in all-solid-state energy storage systems while maintaining their power densities above 1 kW/kg. Furthermore, specific characteristics of ultracapacitors such as fast charge/discharge capability, high cycleability, and low equivalent series resistance should be preserved [3]. Solid components are preferable over the liquid phase materials to avoid any spillage during use under extreme conditions in battlefield environment. The storage media should be conformal and flexible for the widest possible range of applications [7,8]. PHASE I: Conduct a feasibility electro-chemical analysis of the integration of battery and on electrochemical double-layer technologies with all-solid-state components. The hybrid system should include the attributes of batteries allowing high energy density, and the characteristics of ultracapacitors of rapid charge/discharge rates in order to optimize the energy and power densities to achieve the target values stated above. PHASE II: Design and fabricate a prototype hybrid energy storage system. All appropriate electro-chemical characteristics, engineering testing and validation of the performance of the prototype system should be performed. Parameters to be tested should include specific capacitance, maximum operating voltage, maximum power and energy density, cycle stability, chemical and thermal stability, equivalent series resistance and leakage current. A working prototype should be submitted to Army for evaluation. PHASE III: Flexible hybrid energy storage systems can be packaged in a variety of form factors, and hence, they have dual use for both military and civilian applications. They can be used as power sources for quick reaction munitions, soldier-portable systems, distributed sensor systems, etc. in the battlefield. The environmental requirements for military power sources may include their use at extreme hot and cold temperatures, exposure to dust, wind, snow and high levels of shock and vibration both in use and during transportation. Among numerous civilian applications, electric and hybrid vehicle applications are considered to be the most applicable with this technology. REFERENCES: [1] T.B. Atwater, P.J. Cygan, and F.C. Leung, Journal of Power Sources, 91, 2736 (2000). [2] J.W. Raadschelders and T. Jansen, Journal of Power Sources, 96, 160-166 (2001). [3] B. E. Conway, Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Scientific Fundamentals and Technological Applications, Springer-Verlag, New York (1999). [4] P. Sharma and T.S. Bhatti, Energy Conversion and Management, 51, 29012912 (2010). [5] M.D. Stoller, S. Murali, N. Quarles, Y. Zhu, J.R. Potts, X. Zhu, H.-W. Ha and R.S. Ruoff, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 14, 33883391 (2012). [6] D. Wei, M.R.J. Scherer, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhnen, and U. Steiner, Nano Lett., 12, 18571862 (2012). [7] Y.J. Kang, H. Chung, C.-H. Han, and W, Kim, Nanotechnology, 23, 1-6 (2012). [8] L. Yuan, X.-H. Lu, X. Xiao, T. Zhai, J. Dai, F. Zhang, B. Hu, X. Wang, L. Gong, J. Chen, C. Hu, Y. Tong, J. Zhou, and Z.L. Wang, ACS Nano, 6, 656-661 (2012).
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