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Development of linear/non-linear radar system

Description:

OBJECTIVE: Development of a high dynamic range ultra-wideband, stepped and switched radar system for ground-vehicular or dismount (hand-held) standoff detection of buried and surface laid improvised explosive devices (IEDs) using linear and non-linear responses. DESCRIPTION: Standoff radar detection of IED components provides safety and maintains maneuverability for the war fighter. Combining linear and non-linear radar techniques shows promise for increasing the standoff distance, detection rates, and decreasing false alarms. Single-tone, multi-tone, and switch-tone frequency techniques are all ways of producing non-linear (harmonic or intermodulation) responses from targets [1,2,3]. The majority of Ground Penetrating Radars (GPRs) use a wide-band pulsed source, however it is possible to use a stepped frequency source for GPRs [4,5]. A radar system with waveform agility is desired for the purpose of compatibility with other RF systems on the battlefield and for better detection of a wide range of targets. There are many possibilities for the realization of the radar system. For instance, by using a stepped frequency source, it is possible to combine both the linear aspects of ground penetrating radar and the non-linear radar detection of electronics into a single sensor system. The timing of the stepped/switched frequency is crucial for non-linear detection and requires switching times on the order of 10 ns. The key parameters of combined linear and non-linear radar are: - High linearity of the radar system - High dynamic range - System frequency range between 300 4000 MHz - Variable frequency step size down to 100 kHz - Standoff ranges appropriate for application - Radiated power of 10-20 Watts maximum - Simple to understand user interface - Minimal training needed for user PHASE I: Phase 1 expected deliverables are a detailed linear and non-linear radar system design, a trade study of system designs, a trade study of components, and a feasibility study of detection distances given the system design. The radar should have the option to examine either the linear or non-linear radar response. Threshold metrics: - Dynamic range on transmitter of>80 dB (including the harmonics or intermodulation products) - Transmit frequency bandwidth between 300 2000 MHz - Receive frequency bandwidth between 300 4000 MHz - Variable frequency step size between 100 kHz to 20 MHz (if stepped frequency used for linear radar) - Standoff ranges appropriate for application (0-5m for dismount, 5-30m for mounted) - Radiated power of 10-20 Watts maximum PHASE II: Phase 2 includes the development and delivery of a brass board combined linear and non-linear radar system (transmitter, receiver, antenna, controller). There will be a demonstration of the radar system in an anechoic chamber. The radar system should have an easily understood user interface for the control program. Phase 2 also requires a written system design report detailing design, constuction, and basic user's guide. Threshold metrics: - Dynamic range on transmitter of>80 dB (including the harmonics or intermodulation products) - Transmit frequency bandwidth between 300 2000 MHz - Receive frequency bandwidth between 300 4000 MHz - Variable frequency step size between 100 kHz to 20 MHz (if stepped frequency used for linear radar) - Standoff ranges appropriate for application (0-5m for dismount, 5-30m for mounted) - Radiated power of 10-20 Watts maximum - Simple to understand user interface PHASE III: Phase 3 includes the development of a prototype system (transmitter, receiver, antennas, controller) and evaluation of prototype at a government test range with realistic surrogate targets. The prototype can be either for mounted or dismounted applications. Multiple military and civil organizations are interested in handheld and mounted GPR technology. Additionally, government agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security may be interested in the prototype technology for portal detection of obscured objects at border screening points and airports. Commercial applications for the prototype technology include recording or communications electronic devices in a secured area, such as prisons or classified processing areas. REFERENCES: [1] Moffatt, D.; Mains, R.,"Detection and discrimination of radar targets,"Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on , vol.23, no.3, pp. 358- 367, May 1975. [2] Viikari, V.; Kantanen, M.; Varpula, T.; Lamminen, A.; Alastalo, A.; Mattila, T.; Seppa, H.; Pursula, P.; Saebboe, J.; Shi Cheng; Al-Nuaimi, M.; Hallbjorner, P.; Rydberg, A.,"Technical Solutions for Automotive Intermodulation Radar for Detecting Vulnerable Road Users,"Vehicular Technology Conference, 2009. VTC Spring 2009. IEEE 69th , vol., no., pp.1-5, 26-29 April 2009 [3] Mazzaro, G.J.; Steer, M.B.; Gard, K.G.,"Intermodulation distortion in narrowband amplifier circuits,"Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, IET , vol.4, no.9, pp.1149-1156, September 2010. [4] Oyan, M.J.; Hamran, S.; Hanssen, L.; Berger, T.; Plettemeier, D.; ,"Ultrawideband Gated Step Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar,"Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on , vol.50, no.1, pp.212-220, Jan. 2012. [5] Kaczmarek, Pawel; Lapinski, Marian; Karczewski, Janusz; ,"Detection of subsurface non-metallic objects using stepped frequency continuous wave ground penetrating radar,"Radar Symposium (IRS), 2010 11th International , vol., no., pp.1-4, 16-18 June 2010.
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