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Supplemental External Expendable Radiator (SEER)


OBJECTIVE: Develop a rugged, lightweight, cost effective, Supplemental External Expendable Radiator (SEER), applicable to engine cooling and resistant to the effects of military environment, which ultimately improves vehicle performance. DESCRIPTION: Thermal issues are one of the key challenges for the current and future ground vehicle fleet. Lack of sufficient cooling limit vehicle climbing and maximum speed capability. Engine compartment space under the armor of military vehicles is extremely limited. Therefore the space given to radiators (and cooling system as a whole) is typically insufficient for full engine power realization. In addition many ground vehicles have been upgraded numbers times increasing heat load to the cooling system; typical heat rejection requirements (on some of the larger combat vehicles) are 400kW and these heat loads are projected to increase significantly in future vehicles. Thermoelectric generators illustrate an example of new technology that will add to vehicle thermal challenges (approximately 50kW). This effort will explore the potential benefits of integrating additional on-board cooling. The first phase of this program will determine the scientific and technical merit of"integrating additional cooling". The second phase is expected to produce a well defined deliverable prototype for testing and evaluation. The third and final phase is expected to transition technology onto a platform and/or the the commercial sector. This heat exchanger system should be"supplemental"(meaning in addition) to the current cooling system of a vehicle. Two potential research areas into what"supplemental"actually means are 1) using the SEER part time (only when needed), or 2) using the SEER continuously (attempting to lessen the power to the cooling fan). This heat exchanger system should be designed as an"external"unit (meaning outside of the armor package of the vehicle). In order to protect valuable equipment on military vehicles from battle, those sub-systems are typically integrated inside the armor of vehicles. In most cases, this design philosophy adversely impacts cooling capability due to size and air flow constraints. This heat exchanger system should be designed as an"expendable"unit (meaning if it is damaged in battle, it will not prevent mission completion). Because military vehicles are designed to operate in a battlefield environment, this requirement expects that this new heat exchanger system may become critically damaged during battle. This heat exchanger system should have some safety provisions to protect nearby soldiers on foot (outside of the vehicle), and prevent the possibility of losing all of the vehicles coolant. Such a heat exchanger would eject a certain amount of hot coolant fluid away from the vehicle and when it gets damaged. This requirement addresses the safety concerns as well as how to isolate the system (to prevent total failure). This heat exchanger system should consider heat emission reduction strategies in order to mitigate additional unwanted heat signatures detectable by an enemy. This heat exchanger system should improve the cooling capacity of an existing vehicle radiator system by at least 20% in hot ambient conditions. The overarching purpose of this technology will be to help reliably deliver troops and consumables in and to military environments (e.g. Forward Operating Bases and other expeditionary bases) with reduced risk to equipment and vehicles. PHASE I: This effort shall fully develop multiple (at least two) concepts of a Supplemental External Expendable Radiator (SEER) for military vehicle engine cooling systems. All SEER concepts shall be compact, lightweight, efficient, cost effective, adaptable and linked to a main vehicle cooling system. This effort shall include a feasibility study of all concepts that determines the technical and commercial merit of the SEER by performing modeling and simulation of each concept, and by completing a detailed analysis and predicted performance. Each concept must provide some measureable cooling system improvement (for example, at least 1.5x improvement in cooling capacity over the baseline system). PHASE II: A concept from Phase I will be down-selected and two Supplemental External Expendable Radiator (SEER) prototypes will be developed. The first prototype will first be fabricated using the Phase I concept design. The second prototype will be improved through a testing and redesign"Lessons Learned"process. The first SEER prototype shall be fabricated based on the selected Phase I concept design. This prototype shall be tested and"Lessons Learned"shall be documented. Then this prototype shall be redesigned and a 2nd generation SEER prototype shall be fabricated based on those"Lessons Learned". Lastly the 2nd generation SEER prototype shall undergo performance testing and comparison to the predicted performance goals of Phase I. PHASE III: The"vision"or"end-state"of this research is a hot environment add-on kit that assists in vehicular performance. Since engine compartment space is extremely limited in all military ground vehicles, it can be stated that this technology can apply to all military ground vehicles. This technology could apply very readily to armored combat ground vehicles where space is even a more of a scarce resource then in non-armored tactical ground vehicles. Specifically this technology could easily transition to the Bradley vehicle, HERCULES vehicle, Stryker vehicle, and Paladin vehicle. On the tactical side, this technology could apply to all of the MRAP vehicles, JLTV concepts and up-armored HMMWV's. There may also be applications for this technology in the automotive after market as an add-on kit for high altitude driving, or desert conditions driving, or even for the car rental industry as an add-on so that renter to do not destroy the vehicles through misuse. There may also be applications for this technology in the agricultural market also as an add-on kit for heavy work in extreme conditions vehicles. REFERENCES: 1. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2. Higgins, J., Oberg, H., and Persaud, C.,"Cooling System Development & Validation For The Urban Bus,"SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-2814, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-2814. 3. El-Sharkawy, A.,"Parametric Analysis for the Design of Compact Heat Exchangers,"SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1578, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-1578. 4. LOCKWOOD, E.,"COOLING CAPACITY OF AUTOMOBILE RADIATORS ,"SAE Technical Paper 230012, 1923, doi:10.4271/230012.
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