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Holographic Video Display (HVD)


OBJECTIVE: Develop full-parallax solid-state 3D display with no moving parts, updated at video rates with electronically generated holograms, no special viewing apparatus, able to use streaming video and streaming geometry together with existing static content. DESCRIPTION: Currently available true 3D displays have unacceptable levels of visual artifacts, do not provide full parallax, take too much power and space, require special headgear, create simulator-sickness effects in minutes, and preclude users from reaching into the image to control it. Additionally, they are unable to ingest and display fused realtime battlefield video and geometric information. Visualization of inherently 3D situationssuch as deconfliction, line-of-sight analysis, air space, satellite constellations, terrain/building structures, and complex battlespace metadatais significantly hampered when projected onto a 2D medium. Such presentations of 3D data on 2D displays is called 3D by the public, but is technically just 2.5D as it does not present all the 3D cues in the data to the viewer. The Air Operations Center Weapon System (AOC WS) currently presents static and video feeds on 2D displays. The static information incorporates Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) imagery on planning displays with video feeds from e.g. UAVs in separate windows. Streaming geometry 3D data from LIDAR and SAR is not currently available to operators, but is expected as the AOC modernizes - resulting in the need for processing, storage, and display technologies to fuse them with existing and emerging visual data feeds. For situational analysis and for ongoing operations, the ability to view the battlespace from any angle, using any data stream (video or geometry) is critical to effective decision making. Recent advances in microprocessors, algorithms, communications, and gesture control technology have now made it possible to develop a compact full parallax digital holographic display system with adequate performance for use in operational applications. Computational power to generate full parallax holograms can be produced affordably by use of clusters of computers and graphics rendering cards. The holographic element (sample of the 2-D hologram), should ideally be 500 nm or smaller in size and 14 bits in grayscale for adequate discrete representation. Alternatively, basis representations of holograms based on precomputed hologram element (hogel) basis sets require pixels of 10 m or smaller compared to the 12 m pitchs now in production for several microdisplay technologies. Nanoelectronics fabrication techniques now being matured by the integrated circuit industry at the 28-nm node, together with diffractive optics for pixel or hogel imaging, enable fabrication of hologram pixels (hpixel) across 100 sq inch of a 16-inch wafer. The resulting sampled hologram (~ 1 Tera-hpixels) might correspond to a true 3-D resolution of several megavoxels in a threshold 30degrees (objective 90degrees) field of view (FOV) once integrated in a suitable microoptics array. The goal of this topic is to enable attobyte command and control databases to be visualized and controlled dynamically in 3-D with look-around in all directions with artifacts that are acceptable by long-term use operators. Gesture control of the imagery is also envisioned to make user interaction with 3D content intuitive. Solid state 3-D would enhance both ground and airborne displays, providing depth information in the cockpit and reducing ambiguity in ground based applications. The technology developed in this topic must be scalable from individual/personal displays to multi-person/wall sized displays without significant sacrifices in power consumption or footprint. Prototype application focus for this topic is air, space, and cyberspace operations centers. PHASE I: Design an HVD capable of presenting, at a minimum, a full parallax 1 Mpx color image at any pupil position in a 30-deg conical field-of-view at 30 Hz update rate (objective: 2 Mpx, color, 60-deg, 60 Hz) having a minimum of 10:1 contrast viewable in room illumination. Assess high speed video and geometry ingest, storage, and fusion technologies. Identify metrics for HVD. Develop an HVD roadmap. PHASE II: Fabricate an HVD system capable of rendering and presenting computer generated holograms at video rate in a laboratory environment. Demonstrate real time fusion of live holographic video with static geometry (e.g. DTED), and imagery from local stores plus Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant services; updates to geometry using real time feeds; and texturing of both static and realtime geometry using both static and live video streams. Develop and apply HVD metrics to assess performance. PHASE III: Military applications: Complex system visualization for air, space, and cyberspace situational awareness, planning, and execution of missions in command and control centers. Commercial application: Commercial air, computer-aided design, scientific and medical visualization, teaching, entertainment. REFERENCES: 1. Zscape holographic motion displays, 2. V. Michael Bove,"Engineering for Live Holographic TV,"SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, pp. 56-60 (Nov/Dec 2011). 3. Stephan Reichelt, Ralf Haussler, Gerald Futterer, and Norbert Leister,"Depth cues in human visual perception and their realization in 3D displays", Proc. SPIE 7690, 76900B (2010); 4. Levent Onural, Fahri Yaras, and Hoonjong Kang, Bilkent Univ. (Turkey),"Digital Holographic Three-Dimensional Video Displays", Proc. IEEE 99(4), pp 576-589 (2011). URL: & arnumber=5709964 & isnumber=5733920. 5. Pierre-Alexandre Blanche,"Toward the Ultimate 3D Display", SID Information Display 28 (2 & 3), pp. 32-36 (Feb/Mar 2012).
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