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Coordination and Performance Metrics in Command and Control Environmentsdate



The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon,

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a set of performance/coordination metrics for evaluating training effectiveness for Air Support Operations Centers (ASOC) for use in command and control (C2) training systems.

DESCRIPTION: Team coordination directly affects team performance[2]. As teams increase in size and complexity, the ability to derive accurate team coordination and performance metrics becomes increasingly difficult. However, it is critical to accurately evaluate team and individual coordination and performance in training simulators that require interactions among members to effectively evaluate progress associated with continued training.

This effort will research and develop evaluation capabilities within a team trainer involved in C2 problems (e.g., the ASOC). An ASOC is a heterogeneous team that provides organization and support to close air support (CAS) missions and is composed of three to nine individuals. An ASOC organizes and manages CAS missions between assets in the air and those on the ground. This requires not only coordinating with air and ground assets, but also across ASOC unit members.

The Joint Theater Air-to-Ground Simulation System (JTAGSS) was implemented to support individualized, as well as team, training. JTAGSS is planning to integrate constructive agents as synthetic teammates[1] capable of playing different ASOC positions. Synthetic teammates provide flexibility in training when crews are not at full capacity and/or instructor resources are limited. Synthetic teammates must perform the role of the real-world individual and must coordinate with both real and other synthetic teammates. Poor individual performance (including synthetic teammates) and poor coordination have been demonstrated to lead to poor team performance[2]. Metrics are critical for not only evaluating human training effects, with or without synthetic teammates, but also for evaluating synthetic teammates’ performance; specifically, determining if it is on par with human performance. Metrics of performance must be at both the individual as well as the team level. The goal of this effort will be to research, develop, and validate metrics for assessing team and individual performance and coordination in team trainers, such as a simulated ASOC.

Results from this effort will provide a set of tools for evaluating team performance within DoD, industry, and academic team settings. These tools will enable evaluation of team coordination and how it relates to objective or subjective performance ratings/criteria.

PHASE I: Study current complex, heterogeneous team operations to determine three products: 1) a validated team coordination score that is executable in software, 2) a validated team performance score that is executable in software, and 3) a paper accepted to a relevant scientific conference.

PHASE II: Study individual positions within the same team trainer identified in Phase I in order to develop: 1) a validated set of individual coordination scores (one for each position on the team) that is executable in software, 2) a validated set of individual performance scores that is executable in software, 3) a paper submitted to a relevant journal, and 4) a paper accepted to a relevant scientific conference.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Develop a general performance coordination method for use in other large-scale coordinated activities such as but not limited to: large-scale consequence management, space C2, and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications.


    • Ball, J., Myers, C., Heiberg, A., Cooke, N. J., Matessa, M., Freiman, M., & Rodgers, S. (2010). The synthetic teammate project. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 16(3), 271–299. doi:10.1007/s10588-010-9065-3.


  • Cooke, N. J., Gorman, J. C., Myers, C. W., & Duran, J. L. (2013). Interactive team cognition. Cognitive Science, 37, 255–285. doi:10.1111/cogs.12009.

KEYWORDS: coordination metric, performance metric, team performance, team coordination

  • TPOC-1: Christopher Myers
  • Phone: 937-938-4044
  • Email:
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