Material innovations to improve the performance of and/or allow new functions in metallic and ceramic materials. This topic includes bulk materials (e.g. superalloys, ceramics, and composites) and coatings (e.g. thermal and environmental barrier coatings, and tribological coatings), as well as other morphologies (e.g. foams). This subtopic also includes composites of metallic and ceramic materials (metal-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites).