Biodegradable Composites with Embedded Seeds for Training Ammunition

Description:

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Weapons 

OBJECTIVE: Develop biodegradable training ammunition loaded with specialized seeds to grow environmentally beneficial plants that eliminate ammunition debris and contaminants. 

DESCRIPTION: Currently the US Army manufactures and consumes hundreds of thousands of training rounds. These rounds are fired at proving grounds and training ranges in the United States and around the world. In addition, special forces conduct day and night training exercises utilizing these training rounds. These rounds include low velocity 40mm grenades; 60mm, 81mm, and 120mm mortars; shoulder launched munitions; 120mm tank rounds; and 155mm artillery rounds. The projectiles, and in some circumstances the cartridge cases and sabot petals, are either left on the ground surface or several feet underground at the proving ground or tactical range. Components of current training rounds require hundreds of years or more to biodegrade. Further, civilians (e.g., farmers or construction crews) encountering these rounds and components do not know if they are training or tactical rounds. Proving grounds and battle grounds have no clear way of finding and eliminating these training projectiles, cartridge cases and sabot petals, especially those that are buried several feet in the ground. Some of these rounds might have the potential corrode and pollute the soil and nearby water. The solution sought by this topic is naturally occurring biodegradable material to replace the current training round materials, eliminating environmental hazards. This SBIR will prove out the technology and replace current training round components with biodegradable parts. The biodegradable materials identified can be utilized by private industry to manufacture biodegradable water bottles, plastic containers, or any other composite or plastic product(s) on the market today. The US Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) has demonstrated bioengineered seeds that can be embedded into the biodegradable composites and that will not germinate until they have been in the ground for several months. This SBIR effort will make use of seeds to grow environmentally friendly plants that remove soil contaminants and consume the biodegradable components developed under this project. Animals should be able to consume the plants without any ill effects. 

PHASE I: In Phase I the contractor develop a process to produce biodegradable composites with remediation seeds that can be used to manufacture 40mm-120mm training rounds. These Training rounds shall meet all the performance requirements of existing training rounds. The contractor should also explore avenues to produce biodegradable composites with remediation seeds for use in products outside the defense sector. 

PHASE II: In Phase II the contractor will prove out the fabrication process and manufacture prototypes that demonstrate the process is ready for industrial use. Provide a sufficient number of prototypes for the government to perform ballistic tests. 

PHASE III: Contractor will coordinate with PEO Ammunition and ammunition prime contractors to establish a transition path for the SBIR technology. 

REFERENCES: 

Satyanarayana, Kestur G., Gregorio GC Arizaga, and Fernando Wypych. "Biodegradable composites based on lignocellulosic fibers”An overview." Progress in polymer science 34, no. 9 (2009): 982-1021.4

Sahari, J., and S. M. Sapuan. "Natural fibre reinforced biodegradable polymer composites." Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci 30, no. 2 (2011): 166-174

Reddy, Narendra. "A review on completely biodegradable composites developed using soy-based matrices." Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 34, no. 18 (2015): 1457-1475

Ochi, Shinji. "Tensile Properties of Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Biodegradable Plastics." International Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-4. doi: 10.5923/j.cmaterials.20120201.01

Biodegradable Composites “ Research Gate https://www.researchgate.net/topic/biodegradable_composites

Mathew, Aji P., Kristiina Oksman, and Mohini Sain. "Mechanical properties of biodegradable composites from poly lactic acid (PLA) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)." Journal of applied polymer science 97, no. 5 (2005): 2014-2025

 

KEYWORDS: Remediation, Biodegradable, Composites, 3D Printing, Additive Manufacturing 

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