Speed-Accuracy Measures for Distributed Interactive Simulation of Nuclear Weapons Effects
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PACIFIC-SIERRA RESEARCH CORP.
1400 Key Blvd., Suite 700, Arlington, VA, 22209
AbstractUsing distributed interactive simulation (DIS) to conduct effective training, analyses, or mission support in a tactical nuclear weapons effects (NWE) environment requires realistic computer generated forces (CGF) that are sensitive to such effects. This level of sensitivity requires CGF to apply valid and reliable speed-accuracy measures of environmental effects on human performance within the DIS environment. a major deficiency in DIS and CGF is that they do not currently simulate the interaction between response time and accuracy that is so characteristic of the performance of humans under stress. Our proposed effort will address that void to enable a more realistic representation of this dynamic dimension of human performance. To fully characterize human behavior in quantitative terms, we need better expressions of task performance accuracy. Unlike response time, operational definitions of accuracy vary for each type of task (e.g., cognitive, psychomotor, and physical). In addition, response time and accuracy measures are not independent. Often the human op0erator must decide which aspect of the task is more important and then trade speed of response for accuracy as required. To develop such a speed-accuracy model (SAM) PSR will analyze human response to NWE based on our in-depth studies of human behavior. We will also investigate the extensive literature on speed-accuracy interaction and compare the utility of alternate modeling approaches to specific human response requirements. Finally, PSR will plan a feasibility demonstration of our SAM algorithms for use within DIS. In air traffic control simulations, SAMs of pilot, crew, and controller responses under high stress would provide a more credible environment for training controllers. In nuclear power plants or other process control facilities, SAMs of control room personnel performance during emergencies could be used to train managers or analyze incidents for lessons learned. In the entertainment industry, opponents would be more challenging if they exhibited a wider variety of behaviors and stress-induced performance decrements.
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