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A Novel Thermal Method for Rapid Coke Measurement in Liquid Rocket Engines

Award Information
Agency: Department of Defense
Branch: Air Force
Contract: FA9300-13-C-2012
Agency Tracking Number: F112-185-1890
Amount: $746,565.00
Phase: Phase II
Program: SBIR
Solicitation Topic Code: AF112-185
Solicitation Number: 2011.2
Solicitation Year: 2011
Award Year: 2013
Award Start Date (Proposal Award Date): 2013-01-02
Award End Date (Contract End Date): 2015-04-01
Small Business Information
17301 W. Colfax Avenue #160
Golden, CO -
United States
DUNS: 196231166
HUBZone Owned: No
Woman Owned: No
Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: No
Principal Investigator
 David Wickham
 Principal Investigator
 (720) 352-7161
Business Contact
 Todd Leeson
Title: Chief Financial Officer
Phone: (303) 881-7992
Research Institution

ABSTRACT: The surfaces of rocket engines are exposed to high pressure combustion products at temperatures up to 6000°F. Regenerative cooling can cause coke to form on the heat exchanger surfaces and the intention to reuse engines creates the potential for excessive coke accumulation, reduced cooling efficiency, and eventual engine failure. Therefore, there is a need to develop a method to characterize coke layer thickness so that engine lifetimes can be predicted. In the Phase I project, Reaction Systems identified an approach than can rapidly and accurately map very thin layers of coke deposited in the cooling channels. We detected coke thicknesses of less than a millionth of an inch in a multichannel plate test article and identified where the coke was located. The overall objective for Phase II is to advance the technology and transition it to a full scale application. In Phase II, we will construct a 1/2 scale cooling channel replica, deposit coke, and demonstrate that our method can detect coke deposits one millionth of an inch thick in these cooling channels. We will also show that our method is effective on coke produced at the very high heat fluxes that occur in rocket engine cooling channels. BENEFIT: The technology will be useful for government and commercial applications. The DoD and AFRL have recently been studying reusable launch vehicles for the eventual replacement of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) system, currently scheduled to be phased-out in 2030. Developing a reusable, fast turn-around launch capability vehicle would allow the DoD to amortize the cost of these launch vehicles over a large number of launches. The ability to reuse a vehicle even ten times could reduce the on-going launch services costs of the government by 90% of current costs. Since the engines are a major part of the cost of a rocket, increasing the reusability of these components by mapping coke deposition could substantially improve the number of missions each engine can provide. There is also a great deal of commercial interest in reusable launch vehicles. Current manufacturers and users of RP/LOx rocket engines would be the primary customers for our technology. This list is fairly small but is increasing in size with the commercialization of space tourism and space launch services. SpaceX, for example, currently has over a $2B order backlog for their Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy series of expendable launch vehicles and soon expect to break the mythical $1000 per pound of payload cost to LEO. SpaceX is also actively looking at ways to return both their first and second stages back to the launch site for refurbishment and reuse. SpaceX has experienced an approximately 100% growth in orders per year for the past few years, and expects this trend to continue or accelerate in the future as their launch costs decrease.

* Information listed above is at the time of submission. *

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