High Resolution Detectors for Single Photon Cardiac Imaging
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44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA, 02472
AbstractDESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): High Resolution Detectors for Single Photon Cardiac Imaging Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a powerful, noninvasive medical imaging modality that mathematically reconstructs the three dimensional d istribution of a radionuclide throughout the body of a human patient or a research animal. Typically, the collected data are displayed and evaluated as a set of two-dimensional images through the organ or diseased area under investigation. SPECT allows qua ntitative study of the function in the investigated region and therefore is an extremely useful tool for understanding organ and tissue physiology including that in the heart. SPECT is very commonly used in identifying as well as localizing coronary artery disease and as many as 90% of all myocardial perfusion studies are now performed using SPECT. Thus, SPECT is playing a critical role in cardiac imaging, providing both diagnosis as well as prognosis. However, there is urgent need for improvement in the in strumentation that is currently used for this imaging modality and expand its capabilities in order to exploit its full potential. At present, the performance of SPECT systems often is limited by the detectors used in these systems. Modern SPECT systems co nsist of scintillation crystals coupled to photomultiplier tubes as detectors. Important requirements for scintillators used in SPECT applications include high light output and high energy resolution, reasonably fast response and high gamma ray stopping ef ficiency. Ideally, the scintillator should also be inexpensive, rugged and easy to manufacture. Currently, NaI(Tl) is the detector of choice in SPECT systems and it is relatively inexpensive and its light output is fairly large. However, the poor energy re solution of NaI(Tl) often limits SPECT performance. The energy resolution of NaI:Tl is limited by its relatively poor proportionality. If scintillators with higher energy resolution at typical SPECT energies (~140 keV) were available, the essential process of scatter rejection would improve. Furthermore, dual-isotope imaging, which is a unique property of SPECT, would also become possible if scintillators with high energy resolution became available. The goal of the proposed effort is to investigate a new h igh resolution detector for SPECT studies. Enhanced scatter rejection can be expected along with possibility of dual isotope imaging. The Phase I project will be aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed concept, while the Phase II project wil l be aimed at optimization of the new detector, implementation of the prototype module and detailed performance evaluation. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The proposed project will have a major impact on health care. It will be very useful in studying myocardial ischemia, neurological disorder and stroke, cancer as well as kidney and liver functioning.
* information listed above is at the time of submission.