GNSS Jammer Location Using Multipath Exploitation


TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Space Platforms

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation and within the AF Component-specific instructions. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws. Please direct questions to the AF SBIR/STTR Contracting Officer, Ms. Gail Nyikon,

OBJECTIVE: Develop a ground-based GNSS Jammer Location capability utilizing a single GNSS receiver capable of estimating the position of a GNSS jammer within 100 meters, and estimating jammer position within 10 meters when networked with other sensors.

DESCRIPTION: Detecting and locating Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) jammers is a vital part of navigation warfare (Navwar), comprising the major thrust of Navwar Electronic Support (ES). Effective jammer detection and location 1) enables alternative means to mitigate jamming (such as kinetic attack), 2) supports mission planning, and 3) increases situational awareness.

Although many effective techniques exist, they primarily rely on airborne equipment, using either high demand, low density assets or dedicated aircraft such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). To enhance the future Navwar capabilities of DoD, a ground-based capability that can operate in urban canyons or mountainous terrain will provide a significant improvement to overarching Navwar capability. In some cases, jammers may be deployed on mobile ground vehicles in an urban environment, making them difficult to detect and track.

Although the multiple signal replicas caused by GNSS multipath degrade position, navigation, and timing (PNT) accuracy, the effects of jammer multipath can be exploited to improve emitter localization. Some recent research postulates that a single receiver can achieve a high degree of localization accuracy. When multiple receivers are networked together, accurate tracking of a mobile jammer may be attainable.

This topic will apply multipath exploitation techniques to the problem of GNSS jammer detection and location. The capabilities of a receiver both with and without a Controlled Radiation Pattern Antenna (CRPA) should be evaluated, as well as enhancements provided by networking two or more receivers together. Expected performance in an urban canyon scenario should be evaluated, along with the required hardware and software necessary to implement multipath exploitation. For purposes of this topic, the threat is a single 100-W mobile jammer located within 10 km of the user and radiating uniformly in the horizontal plane. Furthermore, assume the mobile jammer uses blanking techniques to decrease its probability of localization.

Four alternatives should be evaluated: 1) a single GNSS receiver without a CRPA, 2) a single GNSS receiver with a CRPA, 3) two or more networked receivers without a CRPA, and 4) two or more GNSS receivers with a CRPA. For each alternative, assess the location accuracy, cost (both recurring and nonrecurring), and suitability for integrating in a ground vehicle.

Proposers should clearly indicate in their proposals what government furnished property or information are required for effort success. Requests for other-DoD contractor intellectual property will be rejected.

PHASE I: Develop multipath exploitation techniques for GNSS jammer location utilizing both a single receiver (greater than 100 m accuracy) and networked receivers (greater than 3 m accuracy). Assess the performance, cost, and suitability.

PHASE II: The selected proposer will design and build a brassboard prototype GNSS jammer locator using multipath exploitation for testing in laboratory and controlled field environments.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The selected proposer will integrate a prototype GNSS jammer locator into a representative ground vehicle. Military application: GPS user equipment segment. Commercial application: Civilian (FAA) user equipment and FCC jammer/interference location.


    • O’Connor, P. Setlur, and N. Devroye, “Single-sensor RF Emitter Localization based on Multipath Exploitation,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 10/28/2013.


    • Kupershtein, E.; Wax, M.; Cohen, I., "Single-Site Emitter Localization via Multipath Fingerprinting," Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on , vol.61, no.1, pp.10,21, Jan.1, 2013.


  • S.D. Coutts, “Passive Localization of Moving Emitters Using Out-of-Plane Multipath,” MIT Lincoln Laboratory Technical Report 1046, 30 September 1998.

KEYWORDS: GPS, GNSS, anti-jam, emitter location, localization, multipath, jammer

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