Additive Manufacturing Development of Naval Platform Heat Exchangers

Description:

TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes

ACQUISITION PROGRAM: FNC EPE FY17-03 Quality Metal Additive Manufacturing

OBJECTIVE: Develop methodology for metal additive manufacturing (AM) processing via ICME (integrated computational materials (science and) engineering) to minimize thickness/weight of heat exchangers and also allow for conformal designs that maximize thermal efficiencies and capacities for systems on Naval and Marine Corps platforms. The proposed effort should also explore the science base of AM process factors that will lead to development of the evaluation criteria and methodologies to qualify (AM) components across the Naval Enterprise.

DESCRIPTION: Requirements for increased heat rejection from system electronics are wide spread, existing across the board in naval ship, submarine, and aircraft/missile systems. As one example, submarines operating in warmer waters have difficulty handling heat dissipation from their electronic systems. The advent of innovative additive fabrication/manufacturing methods allows the reduction of weight and fin or wall thicknesses which enables HeX conformal designs that improve thermal cooling efficiencies and heat removal capacities.

Before heat exchangers produced using additive manufacturing processes can be introduced into Navy systems, there are a number of factors that must be addressed surrounding the reliability of the manufactured components. Through the use of ICME, AM processes can be evaluated and modified to minimize/eliminate defects control of process variability must be established. Process control will also help to determine the window in which acceptable components can be produced by the AM process that have similar or improved metallurgical microstructures, physical and mechanical properties when compared to the traditionally fabricated heat exchangers. The integrity and performance of the AM-fabricated heat exchanger compared to the traditionally fabricated heat exchanger (HeX) will be validated by (a) ICME methodologies, (b) destructive examination, (c) non-destructive examination of the HeX, and (e) testing of the heat transfer characteristics.

Initially, the effort should focus on the AM processing to deliver consistent wall thicknesses without defects that would compromise the expected life of HEs. Additionally, if funding and time are available, the development work should include integrated models considering fluid flow (pressure drop, effects of turbulence, viscosity, etc.), heat transfer, mechanical and materials properties, as well as innovative additive manufacturing methodology for the fabrication of efficient, thin-walled/low weight, low cost cellular ceramic electronics substrate, with highly enhanced (significantly improved) heat removal capability.

PHASE I: Design, employ and prove feasibility of an approach for a metal AM method to replicate a three-tubular design (triangular cross-section). Demonstrate desired properties such as consistent weight and wall thickness, i.e., devoid of defects, leaks or blockages while maintaining component thermal efficiency, with acceptable cost of manufacturing and realistic reliability factors (i.e. cost to performance benefits ratio are at least as good as the current HeX). Laboratory scale specimens should be fabricated and characterized by mechanical testing, and destructive and non-destructive evaluations. ICME should link metal thickness and associated properties with the AM process

PHASE II: Based upon Phase I effort, apply ICME tools to metal AM processing, to predict design limits (for minimizing wall thickness and HeX weight) needed to produce a more complex HeX product with significant changes in properties such as improved heat transfer capacity, reduced number of parts and joints, and that meets the baseline HeX criteria that would lead to Navy qualification. Validation of ICME tools and predictive analysis capabilities will be analyzed by comparing the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of an AM heat exchanger with a heat exchanger currently fabricated by traditional means to validate the production of a heat exchanger by one additive manufacturing process. The non-destructive methods will be correlated with destructive examinations. The involvement of a HeX OEM will be strongly encouraged to participate in developing the pathway for qualifying HeXs and components for Naval use.

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Additive Manufactured electronic substrates will be transitioned into its intended system on a Navy platform. The OEM involved during Phase II will be part of the transition team. Phase III will include defining the additive manufacturing parameters for qualified full scale system production and establishing facilities capable of achieving full scale production capability of Navy-qualified HeXs. Heat Exchangers are universal and employed in numerous commercial systems that reject heat for engines, electronics, and other heat producing devices. The use of AM could lead to more innovative HeX designs capable of more efficiently removing heat because such designs could eliminate or severely reduce joints. AM processing of components that are qualified for Navy use could also be applied to commercial use.Heat Exchangers are universal and employed in numerous commercial systems that reject heat for engines, electronics, and other heat producing devices. The use of AM could lead to more innovative HeX designs capable of more efficiently removing heat because such designs could eliminate or severely reduce joints. AM processing of components that are qualified for Navy use could also be applied to commercial use.

REFERENCES:

    • S. Baskutis, V. Vasauskas, “Mechanics and Material Aspects in Serviceability of the Heat Exchangers”, Mechanika, 17 (3), pp. 239-245.

 

    • B.A. Cowles, D. Backman, “Advancement and Implementation of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Aerospace Applications,” AFRL-RX-WP-TP-21010-4151.

 

    • W.E. Frazier, “Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review”, Manuscript to be submitted to Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, December 2013.

 

    • M. F. Horstemeyer, “Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) For Metals”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.

 

  • T.J. Lu, “Heat Transfer Efficiency of Metal Honeycombs”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol 42, No. 11, pp. 2031-2040 (1999).

KEYWORDS: additive manufacturing; heat exchangers; qualification; reliability; wall thickness; weight; non-destructive evaluation

  • TPOC-1: David Shifler
  • Email: david.shifler@navy.mil
  • TPOC-2: Ignacio Perez
  • Email: ignacio.perez1@navy.mil

Questions may also be submitted through DoD SBIR/STTR SITIS website.

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